Business High School

## Answers

**Answer 1**

Question 1The purchase of government bonds **depends **on various economic indicators. In this case, the manager is considering the purchase of government bonds in either country A, B, or C. The following are the details provided about these **countries **Country A:

Foreign exchanges/short term debt ratio of 150% and a debt to GDP ratio of 40%.Country B: Foreign exchange/short term debt ratio is 79% and debt to GDP ratio is 87%.Country C: Its **economy **is dominated by the fishing industry, and the GDP in the most recent year is $80 billion. The best choice of government bonds to purchase will be country B's bonds since it has a lower foreign exchange/short term debt ratio than country A.

This indicates that the country will be able to repay the debt within the short term. Moreover, it has a higher debt to GDP ratio, which **indicates **that it can take on more debt and repay it, which is a good indicator of financial stability. The debt-to-GDP ratio indicates how much debt a country has compared to its economic output.

Hence, option b. country B is the best option. Question 2The yield curve is upward sloping in this country, and the current **portfolio **in this country is 60% in stocks and 40% in bonds. Based on this information, the portfolio should be shifted from stock to bonds to maintain the balance.

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## Related Questions

1. You can purchase a service contract for all of your major appliances for $180 per year. If the appliances are expected to last for 8 years and you earn 4% on your savings, what would be the future

### Answers

The future **value** of the **service **contract for all major appliances will be $6,127.50 after 8 years if the annual **interest rate** earned on savings is 4%.

Given: **Price **of service contract for all of the major appliances = $180 per year Expected lifespan of the appliances = 8 years Annual **interest rate** earned on savings = 4%To find: Future value of the service contract Solution: As the service contract price is constant over the expected lifespan of appliances, it can be considered as an ordinary annuity. Here, the payments of $180 per year will be made at the end of each year for 8 years. We need to calculate the future value of these payments at the end of the 8th year using the future value of **annuity **formula: Future value of an annuity = Payment x [((1 + r)n - 1) / r]

Where, r = interest rate per period

n = number of periods

Payment = $180

We have interest rate per period and number of periods as: Interest rate per period (r) = 4% / 1 year= 0.04Number of periods (n) = 8 years We can substitute the given values in the formula: Future value of annuity = $180 x [((1 + 0.04)8 - 1) / 0.04]= $180 x [(1.3605) / 0.04]= $6,127.50.

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The stock of Pills Bemy Company is currently selling at $75 per share. The firm pays a dividend of $275 per share. a. What is the onnual dividend yeid? (Do not round intermediate calculations. Input your answer as a percent rounded to 2 decimal places.) b. If the firm hos a poyout rate of 50 percent, what is the firm's PIE ratio? (Do not round intermediate calculations and round your answer to 2 decimal places.)

### Answers

a.The **annual **dividend yield is 366.67%

b. The firm's P/E **ratio **is 0.546

a. To calculate the annual dividend yield, we divide the annual dividend by the stock price and multiply by 100.

Annual Dividend Yield = (**Dividend** per Share / Stock Price) * 100

= ($275 / $75) * 100

= 366.67%

b. The Price/**Earnings (**P/E) ratio can be calculated by dividing the stock price by the earnings per share. Since the **payout** ratio is 50%, we can assume that the earnings per share (EPS) is half of the dividend per share.

EPS = Dividend per Share * Payout Ratio

= $275 * 0.50

= $137.50

P/E ratio = Stock Price / EPS

= $75 / $137.50

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The current price of gold is $1,709 per ounce. The storage cost of gold per annum is 1.57% of the gold price. The risk-free rate of interest is 2.87% per annum. The lease rate to lend gold is 1.52% per annum. What do you think should be the future price of a six-month futures contract on gold in two decimal places?

### Answers

Calculation of future price of a six-month **futures** **contract** on goldWe are given the following data:The current price of gold = $1,709 per ounceStorage cost of gold per annum = 1.57%Risk-free rate of interest = 2.87%Lease rate to lend gold = 1.52%Let's use the formula below to calculate the Future price of a six-month futures **contract** on gold:Future price = S * [1 + r * (T / 365) - q * (T / 365)]where, S = Spot price, r = Risk-free rate of interest, q = Lease rate, and T = Time period

To calculate the future price of gold:We need to find the value of S, which is the spot price of gold. Since it is the current price of gold that is given, it should be used as the **spot** **price**.In six months, the number of days is 365/2 = 182.5 daysThe risk-free rate of interest is 2.87% per annum, so the value of r is 0.0287

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(Estimated time allowance: 40-50 minutes) Easy-Chair Corp. is considering replacing its existing equipment that is used to produce comfort recline chairs. This existing equipment was purchase 2 years ago at a base price of $100,000. Installation costs at the time for this old equipment were $5,000. The existing equipment is considered a 5-year class for MACRS. The existing equipment can be sold today for $40,000 and for $0 in 5 years. The new equipment has a purchase price of $200,000 and is also considered a 5-year class for MACRS. Installation costs for the new equipment are $10,000. It is estimated that this equipment can be sold in 5 years (end of project) for $70,000. This new equipment is more efficient than the existing one and thus savings before taxes using the new machine are $20,000 a year. This new equipment will also require additional working capital today of $12.000; this investment will be recovered at the end of the project in year 5. The company's marginal tax rate is 20% and the cost of capital is 10%. What is the NPV of this replacement project? The following 6 questions reach the value for the answer. MACRS Fixed Annual Expense Percentages by Recovery Class Year 1 2 3 4 781DA23 9 10 11 14 15 16 10- 15- Year Year 3-Year 5-Year 7-Year 33.33% 20.00 % 14.29% 10.00% 5.00% 44.45% 32.00% 24.49 % 18.00 % 9.50% 14.81% 19.20 % 17.49 % 14.40 % 8.55% 7.41% 11.52 % 12.49 % 11.52% 7.70% 11.52% 8.93% 9.22% 6.93% 5.76% 8.93% 7.37% 6.23% 8.93 % 6.55% 5.90% 4.45% 6.55% 5.90% 6.56% 5.91% 6.55% 5.90% 3.28% 5.91% 5.90% 5.91% 5.90% 5.91% 2.95% For your answer, round to the nearest dollar, do not enter the $ sign, use commas to separate thousands, use a negative sig in front of first number is the cash flow is negative (do not use parenthesis to indicate negative cash flows). For example, if your answer is $3.005.87 then enter 3,006; if your answer is -$1,200.25 then enter -1,200 For your answer, round to the nearest dollar, do not enter the $ sign, use commas to separate thousands, use a negative sign in front of first number is the cash flow is negative (do not use parenthesis to indicate negative cash flows). For example, if your answer is $3,005.87 then enter 3,006: if your answer is -$1,200.25 then enter -1.200 1. What is the initial outlay (10) for this project - the project cash flows at time=0? A 2. What is the free cash flow (FCF) for year 1 of this replacement project? A 3. What is the free cash flow (FCF) N 4. What is the net for year 2 of this replacement project? operating profit plus incremental depreciation for year 5 of this replacement project? A 5. What is the free cash flow (FCF) for year 5 of this replacement project? N 6. What is the NPV of this replacement project? 1

### Answers

The initial **outlay** for this project is $322,000. The free cash flow (FCF) for year 1 of this replacement project is $28,000. The free cash flow (FCF) for year 5 of this replacement project is $103,600. The net operating profit plus incremental depreciation for year 2 of this replacement project is $43,400. The **NPV** of this replacement project is $32,162.

To calculate the initial outlay, we add the purchase price of the new equipment ($200,000), installation costs ($10,000), working capital investment ($12,000), and subtract the salvage value of the existing equipment ($40,000).

For the FCF in year 1, we subtract the **savings** before taxes ($20,000) from the MACRS depreciation expense ($48,000).

The FCF in year 5 is the sum of savings before taxes ($20,000), MACRS depreciation expense ($19,200), and the salvage value of the new equipment ($70,000).

The net operating **profit** plus incremental depreciation for year 2 is the sum of savings before taxes ($20,000) and the MACRS depreciation expense ($23,400).

Finally, the NPV is calculated by discounting the FCFs using the cost of capital (10%) and summing them up.

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You have recently been promoted to assistant branch manager at your neighborhood branch for Coventry Bank. Your responsibilities include: 1. Promoting the team concept among all customer service representatives in your branch. Serving as a team leader on special projects that involve your staff. 2. Your district manager has asked you and 3 other employees at your branch to find a solution to the lack of sufficient office space for the growing number of workers at your location. As a leader, you have scheduled a team meeting on Thursday afternoons for four weeks to address the problem. After 2 meetings with your co-workers you notice that everyone is making vital contributions to the group's effort except Nancy. During the meeting she displayed very poor listening skills. She often jumps ahead of the topic or interrupts a speaker's train of thought. At other times she doodles on her note pad instead of taking constructive notes. She remains silent after team member's delivery lengthy reports about possible solutions to the office problem. SUMMARY GRADING 12% Write a 3 paragraph single spaced summary of the case focusing on communication skills in business; remember to state the importance of written communication skills no matter of your job description.

### Answers

As an assistant branch **manager**, the role of an individual is to **lead**, guide, and motivate team members to deliver their best. This involves promoting the team concept among all customer service representatives in your branch.

A good leader should also serve as a team leader on special **projects **that involve the staff. However, sometimes, there can be communication barriers that can lead to inefficiencies, unproductive meetings, or a lack of team spirit.In the case above, Nancy, a team member, was **displaying **poor listening skills, interrupting speakers, and doodling on her notepad instead of taking constructive notes. This indicates a lack of communication skills that can be detrimental to the progress of a team. Communication skills are an essential part of any business.

A lack of communication skills can lead to confusion, misunderstandings, and **mistakes** that can cost a business more than 100 times. Clear and concise communication ensures that everyone is on the same page, allowing them to work collaboratively to achieve the set goals. Therefore, written communication skills are important, regardless of your job description. A good communicator should take notes, avoid interrupting speakers, and ensure that they understand what has been discussed before contributing to the discussion.

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Break-Even in Units, After-Tax Target Income, CVP Assumptions Campbell Company manufactures and sells adjustable canopies that attach to motor homes and trailers. The market covers both new unit purchases as well as replacement canopies. Campbell developed its business plan for the year based on the assumption that canopies would sell at a price of $400 each. The variable costs for each canopy were projected at $200, and the annual fixed costs were budgeted at $100,000. Campbell's after-tax profit objective was $237,000; the company's effective tax rate is 40 percent. While Campbell's sales usually rise during the second quarter, the May financial statements reported that sales were not meeting expectations. For the first five months of the year, only 350 units had been sold at the established price, with variable costs as planned, and it was clear that the after-tax profit projection for the year would not be reached unless some actions were taken. Campbell's president assigned a management committee to analyze the situation and develop several alternative courses of action. The following mutually exclusive alternatives, labeled A, B, and C, were presented to the president: A. Lower the variable costs per unit by $25 through the use of less expensive materials and slightly modified manufacturing techniques. The sales price will also be reduced by $30, and sales of 2,100 units for the remainder of the year are forecast. B. Reduce the sales price by $40. The sales organization forecasts that with the significantly reduced sales price, 2,800 units can be sold during the remainder of the year. Total fixed and variable unit costs will stay as budgeted. C. Cut fixed costs by $10,000, and lower the sales price by 5 percent. Variable costs per unit will be unchanged. Sales of 1,900 units are expected for the remainder of the year.

Required: 1. Determine the number of units that Campbell Company must sell in order to break even assuming no changes are made to the selling price and cost structure. X units 2. Determine the number of units that Campbell Company must sell in order to achieve its after-tax profit objective. units 3. Determine which one of the alternatives Campbell Company should select to achieve its annual after-tax profit objective.

### Answers

**Answer : **option B, where the sales price is reduced by $40, is the most profitable. It produces the highest** profits **while also generating the least number of sales. Campbell must reduce the sales price by **$40 to $360 **per unit, with sales of 2,800 units for the remainder of the year.

Explanation :

1. Campbell Company’s selling price is $400 per unit, variable cost is $200 per unit, and fixed costs are $100,000 per year.

To break even, the company must sell 1,000 units. **Contribution Margin** per Unit = Sales Price per Unit - Variable Cost per Unit= $400 - $200 = $200**Breakeven in Units** = Fixed Costs / Contribution Margin per Unit= $100,000 / $200 = 500 units

2. The required after-tax profit of Campbell is $237,000, and the effective tax rate is 40%.

Therefore, the required before-tax profit is $237,000 / (1 - 0.40) = $395,000.

The company has a **contribution margin** of $200 per unit; thus, the number of units required to earn the required profit before taxes is: **Breakeven units** = (Fixed Costs + Before Tax Income) / Unit** **

**Contribution Margin** = ($100,000 + $395,000) / $200 = 2,475 units

3. The new break-even points, as well as the expected profits, must be calculated for each option.

Alternative A would require sales of 2,100 units to achieve a** profit** of $237,000. Alternative B would require sales of 3,475 units to achieve a profit of $237,000. Alternative C would require sales of 2,190 units to achieve a profit of $237,000.

Therefore, option B, where the sales price is reduced by $40, is the most profitable. It produces the highest profits while also generating the least number of sales. Campbell must reduce the sales price by $40 to $360 per unit, with sales of 2,800 units for the remainder of the year.

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The ought to quickly depict the substance of the report. Select one: O a. synopsis b. report c. table Od. Annexure

### Answers

The appropriate term to quickly depict the substance of the report would be "summary" or "**synopsis**."

A **summary** provides a concise overview of the main points and findings of a report, allowing readers to grasp the key information without going through the entire document.

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GE ebook Using a required rate of return equal to 12 percent, compute the modified internal rate of return (MIRR) for a project that costs $72,000 and is expected to generate $31,000, $62,000, and -$10,050, respectively, during the next three years. Should the project be purchased? Do not round Intermediate calculations. Round your answer to two decimal places. The project Seed be purchased because the MIRR, that is %, is Select- the required rate of return.

### Answers

The **Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR)** for the project is 11.03%, which is lower than the required rate of return of 12%. The project should not be purchased.

Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR) is defined as the rate of return of a project assuming that the cash flows are reinvested at the cost of capital, while the **terminal value of cash** **inflows **are brought to the present value at the required rate of return.GE ebook using a required rate of return equal to 12 percent, compute the modified internal rate of return (MIRR) for a project that costs $72,000 and is expected to generate $31,000, $62,000, and -$10,050, respectively, during the next three years. **Should the project be purchased?**MIRR is computed using the following formula:MIRR = (FV of positive cash flows/(1+r)n) / (PV of negative cash flows/(1+r)n)The values that we need to compute MIRR are:FV of positive cash flows = $31,000(1.12)² + $62,000(1.12)¹PV of negative cash flows = $10,050(1.12)³Then, substituting values in the MIRR formula:[tex]MIRR = (($31,000(1.12)^2 + $62,000(1.12)^2)/$72,000^{(1/3)}) / (($10,050(1.12)^2)/$72,000)^{(1/3)}[/tex][tex]MIRR = (2.13824 / 0.647303)^{(1/3)}\\MIRR = 1.103 \approx 11.03%[/tex] (rounded to two decimal places)Therefore, the MIRR of the project is 11.03%, which is less than the required **rate of return** of 12%. Thus, the project should not be purchased as the return is less than the cost of capital.

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QUESTION 2 [30 marks] The kid's scooter manufacturer has received an order of 12000 units of scooter from a customer. A kid's scooter has three major components: a frameset, a deck and a pair of wheels which requires somewhat different resources. The information for the production per unit is shown as follows: There are a total of 900 regular labor hours and 70 overtime hours available in the company; where overtime involves an additional cost of $6 per hour. The resources available in the company are as 50000lb alloy and 30000lb plastic. Management realizes that the order is too large to fill using only the company's own resources. Thus, management decides to subcontract one of its competitors to fill the remaining portion of the order (given subcontractor can meet the demand that the company can't fulfil). The manufacturing cost and outsourcing cost from the subcontractor are summarized below. (a) Formulate a linear programming model to fill the order at the minimum cost. [20 marks] (b) According to the Solver solution, the 70 overtime hours are fully used and the optimal number of frameset, deck and wheels in pair to buy is 9600,6300 and 12000 , respectively. While the reduced cost for a pair of wheels to make is 1.636. i. What is the optimal number of frameset, deck and wheels in pair to make in house? [3 marks] ii. What is the total cost required to fill the order? [2 marks] iii. How many in house unused materials for the production? [2 marks] iv. Explain the reduced cost for a pair of wheels in terms of its manufacturing cost? [3 marks]

### Answers

A linear **programming **model to fill the order at **minimum **cost is given below: Let F, D, and W be the number of frameset, deck, and pair of wheels, respectively.

It is required to minimize the total cost of manufacturing and outsourcing, which is given as: Minimize 400F + 300D + 100W + 4400 + 3700 + 2400The constraints for the number of labor hours available in the **company **are given as:3F + 2D + 1.5W ≤ 900 (regular labor hours)2F + 1.5D + W ≤ 70 (overtime hours)

The constraints for the available **resources **in the company are given as:5F + 3D + 2W ≤ 50000 (alloy)2F + 4D + 3W ≤ 30000 (plastic)The non-negativity constraints are given as: F ≥ 0, D ≥ 0, and W ≥ 0.(a) The given linear programming model is already in standard form. The objective is to minimize the total cost of manufacturing and outsourcing.

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The Parks and Recreation Department of Pawnee is trying to decide on the number of fireworks shows for the summer of 2022. The cost of each fireworks show is $50. Pawnee has 10 residents and each have the same willingness to pay, which is decreasing in the number of fireworks shows q: 8-q. (You can ignore the effects of the free rider problem below.) a

What is the social marginal benefit of fireworks shows?

What is the social optimal number of fireworks shows? April Ludgate proposes that the Parks and Recreation Department should just let the market determine the number of fireworks shows and be done with it.

What is the market demand for fireworks shows?

What is the market equilibrium number of fireworks shows?

Ben Wyatt proposes that the Parks and Recreation Department should provide a subsidy for fireworks.

What is the optimal subsidy that implements the social optimum?

### Answers

The **optimal subsidy** would be the difference between the social marginal benefit and the marginal cost at the social optimum, which is **$50**.

The **social marginal benefit** of fireworks shows represents the value to society of each additional show. In this case, it is given by 8 - q, where q represents the number of shows. As the number of shows increases, the willingness to pay for each show decreases, reflecting diminishing marginal utility.

The social optimal number of fireworks shows occurs where the marginal cost of the shows, which is $50, equals the social marginal benefit. Setting 8 - q equal to $50 and solving for q gives us q = 4. Therefore, the socially **optimal number** of shows is 4.

The market demand for fireworks shows is obtained by summing up the individual willingness to pay for each resident. Since all residents in Pawnee have the same **willingness** **to pay**, the market demand curve is a horizontal line at a value of 8.

The market equilibrium number of fireworks shows occurs where the market demand curve intersects the marginal cost curve, which is $50. In this case, the intersection point is also at q = 4, indicating that the market equilibrium number of shows is also 4.

To implement the **social optimum**, a subsidy can be provided to reduce the cost of each show. The optimal subsidy is equal to the difference between the social marginal benefit and the marginal cost at the social optimum, which is $50. Therefore, a subsidy of $50 per show would be needed to achieve the social optimum of 4 shows.

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1) Perform a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) for them this is an internal analysis 2) Perform a PESTLE analysis (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal \& Environmental) for Canada - this is an external analysis 3) Use PORTER's FIVE FORCES model to evaluate the firm's industry from an attractiveness perspective in detail Min 3 pages, no maximum, 25\% plagiarism max, 10-12 pt font, MS Word, Group work, cite all sources in bibliography, 1" margins

### Answers

Performing a** SWOT **analysis, PESTLE analysis, and Porter's Five Forces analysis requires a significant amount of research, analysis, and presentation of findings. Due to the limitations of this platform, I am unable to provide you with a detailed analysis meeting all the specified **requirements. **

However, I can provide you with a brief overview of each analysis to help you understand their purpose and key components.

**SWOT Analysis:**

A SWOT analysis is an internal analysis that examines an organization's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. It helps identify internal factors that can be leveraged for success (strengths and opportunities) and internal factors that need improvement (weaknesses and threats).

**Strengths: **These are internal factors that give the organization a competitive advantage or unique capabilities.

**Weaknesses:** These are internal factors that put the organization at a disadvantage or hinder its performance.

**Opportunities:** These are external factors that the organization can capitalize on to achieve growth or success.

**Threats:** These are external factors that pose risks or challenges to the organization's performance.

**PESTLE Analysis:**

A PESTLE analysis is an external analysis that examines the political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental factors that can impact an organization or a country's business environment.

Political: Factors related to government policies, regulations, stability, and political climate.

**Economic**: Factors related to economic conditions, growth rates, inflation, employment, and currency exchange rates.

**Social:** Factors related to demographics, cultural norms, social attitudes, and consumer behavior.

**Technological: **Factors related to technological advancements, innovation, and the impact of technology on industries and markets.

**Legal: **Factors related to laws, regulations, and legal frameworks that affect businesses.

**Environmental:** Factors related to environmental issues, sustainability, climate change, and their impact on business operations.

**Porter's Five Forces Analysis:**

Porter's Five Forces analysis evaluates the attractiveness of an industry by examining five key forces that shape competition and profitability:

Threat of new entrants: The ease or difficulty for new competitors to enter the industry.

**Bargaining power of buyers: **The power and influence buyers have to negotiate prices and terms.

**Bargaining power of suppliers: **The power and influence suppliers have to control inputs and prices.

**Threat of substitute products or services:** The availability of alternative products or services that can meet the same needs.

**Intensity of competitive rivalry:** The level of competition among existing firms in the industry.

Performing a detailed analysis meeting the specified requirements would require more time, extensive research, and access to appropriate resources. It is recommended to undertake these analyses systematically using reliable sources, such as industry reports, market data, and relevant academic literature.

Additionally, it is important to acknowledge that group work requires collaboration and division of tasks among team members. Each member can contribute to different sections of the analysis and come together to compile the final report. Proper citation of sources is essential to avoid plagiarism and provide credibility to the analysis.

I encourage you to undertake these analyses with your group members, allocate responsibilities, conduct** thorough r**esearch, and follow the given instructions to create a comprehensive report meeting the specified requirements.

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Do you think Huawei can follow through on the CEO's bold claim that Huawei will overtake Apple within 3 years and Samsung within 5 years in smartphone market share? What would it take to achieve this goal in terms of technology and marketing?

### Answers

Not big in technology markets but honestly I think they may stay the same especially like apple in there recent years coming out with new modified tech such as AirPods or plug-less chargers and such. So they can overtake but with most of apples tech people like Samsung mainly just copy them. Then again I could be wrong…

Prepare the journal entries for the following events:

1. office supplies costing $4,900 were purchased. $600 was paid on 6/3/22 and the remainder will be paid in 30 days.

2. payment of an account for $750 was made to a vendor.

### Answers

In accounting, **journal **entries refer to the recording of transactions that affect the company's **finances **in the general ledger. Journal entries help in maintaining the integrity of a company's financial records and facilitate the accounting process.

The following are the journal entries for the given events: Event 1: Office supplies costing $4,900 were purchased. $600 was paid on 6/3/22, and the remainder will be paid in 30 days. **Purchase **of office supplies: Account Name Debit Credit Office Supplies4,900 . Accounts Payable4,900Payment of $600: Account Name Debit Credit Accounts Payable600Cash600Payment of the remainder: Account Name Debit Credit Accounts Payable4,300Cash4,300Event 2: Payment of an account for $750 was made to a vendor.

Purchase Payment: Account Name Debit **Credit **Accounts Payable750Cash750In the above journal entries, accounts payable is credited for the full amount of the purchase, and then the payment is recorded to cash, debiting cash and crediting accounts payable.

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Assess your network, complete the following interesting and

informative exercise to evaluate your current spheres of influence,

that is, who it is you choose to associate with and how they impact

your

### Answers

Assessing one **network** is an essential aspect of evaluating one's current spheres of influence. It is crucial to assess one social circle to ascertain how the people they associate with influence them and determine the extent to which they are **affected. **

After categorizing your contacts, you should then determine the level of influence each group has on your life. For instance, family members may have a higher level of influence on your life than

**colleagues.**

Finally, you should evaluate the quality of each relationship and determine the extent to which it impacts your life. For instance, some relationships may be toxic and negatively impact your life, while others may be supportive and positively impact your** life.**

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Find a company you are interested in and discuss how you view

their strategic response to the Covid-19 pandemic and or/

reopening.

Post should be 300 - 500 words.

### Answers

The strategic response of [Company Name] to the **Covid-19 pandemic** and reopening has been commendable, demonstrating effective measures and adaptability to navigate through the crisis.

In terms of **adaptation **and innovation, [Company Name] swiftly adjusted its operations to comply with health regulations and meet customer needs. They embraced digital **transformation**, offering online ordering and delivery options, implementing remote work arrangements, and utilizing technology to enable virtual meetings and collaborations. These proactive measures allowed them to continue serving their customers effectively while adhering to safety protocols.

To prioritize employee well-being, [Company Name] implemented comprehensive health and safety protocols across all their facilities. They provided personal protective **equipment **(PPE), implemented social distancing measures, and conducted regular sanitization of workspaces. Additionally, they introduced employee assistance programs, virtual wellness initiatives, and flexible work arrangements to support their staff during these challenging times.

Financial resilience was a key aspect of [Company Name]'s strategic response. They swiftly adapted their financial strategies to manage costs, optimize cash flow, and sec**ure liquidity**. This included renegotiating contracts, reducing non-essential expenses, and exploring alternative revenue streams. By implementing these measures, [Company Name] demonstrated their ability to withstand the economic impact of the pandemic and ensure the sustainability of their operations.

Furthermore, [Company Name] actively supported their local community during the crisis. They collaborated with charitable **organizations **to provide resources and support to vulnerable populations. Additionally, they donated a portion of their proceeds to Covid-19 relief efforts, demonstrating their commitment to social responsibility and community welfare.

In terms of their long-term strategy, [Company Name] showed resilience and adaptability. They reviewed their business models, identifying areas for **improvement **and exploring new opportunities for growth. By leveraging their core competencies and embracing innovation, they positioned themselves to emerge stronger from the crisis and capitalize on future market trends.

Overall, [Company Name]'s **strategic **response to the Covid-19 pandemic and reopening exemplifies their commitment to the well-being of their stakeholders, adaptability to changing circumstances, and proactive measures to ensure business continuity.

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I would be greatly grateful if answer these

questions!

Note: You may need to look ahead to Chapter 13 for this question. True False Question 9 number of units or a specified period of time." What is the above statement describing? A Requirement Change A D

### Answers

The statement "number of units or a specified period of time" is describing the concept of "**Demand"** in the context of supply chain management. Demand refers to the quantity of a product or service that customers are willing to purchase within a given time period. It can be measured in terms of the number of units sold or the total sales value within a specific time frame. Therefore, the correct answer to the question is: Demand.

Instead, the statement seems to be describing the concept of "**Sales **Forecasting." Sales forecasting is the process of estimating the future demand for a product or service based on historical data, market trends, and other relevant factors. It involves predicting the number of units that will be sold or the sales value within a specified period of** time.**

By accurately forecasting sales, businesses can better plan their production, inventory management, and resource allocation. This allows them to meet customer demand, optimize their operations, and make informed business** decisions.**

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What is the estimated 1st year Net Operating Income (NOI) of the following property: 50,000 square feet of office space currently rented for $10 per square foot per year, 6% projected vacancy, operating expenses of 30% of Effective Gross Income (EGI), and $15,000 per year in capital expenditures?

### Answers

The** estimated **1st year Net Operating Income (NOI) of the property is $315,000.

To calculate the** NOI,** we first calculate the** Effective Gross Income **(EGI) by multiplying the rented square footage (50,000 sq ft) by the rental rate ($10/sq ft) and subtracting the projected vacancy (6%). This gives us EGI of $470,000.

Next, we calculate the** operating expenses** by multiplying the EGI by the expense ratio (30%). This gives us operating expenses of $141,000.

Finally, we subtract the operating expenses and **capital expenditures** ($15,000) from the EGI to obtain the NOI. Thus, the NOI for the 1st year is $315,000.

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Give an example of how the collegial Organizational Behavior

model may be applied in the workplace.

ASAP PLEASE

### Answers

Applying the collegial Organizational Behavior model in the **workplace **promotes **teamwork**, collaboration, and a supportive work environment.

The collegial **Organizational Behavior model** emphasizes collaboration, teamwork, and a supportive work environment. One example of how this model can be applied in the workplace is through the establishment of cross-functional teams.

In this model, employees from different departments or areas of expertise come together to work on a specific project or solve a problem. The teams are typically **self-managed** and have the authority to make decisions and implement solutions. This approach fosters a collegial atmosphere where individuals collaborate, share knowledge, and leverage their diverse skills and perspectives.

By implementing cross-functional teams, organizations can benefit from increased **innovation**, better problem-solving, and improved communication and cooperation among employees. It encourages the exchange of ideas, promotes learning and growth, and builds stronger relationships within the organization.

The collegial model emphasizes **open communication** and a supportive work environment. It encourages managers and leaders to listen to employee feedback, involve them in decision-making processes, and create a culture of trust and mutual respect. This approach enhances employee engagement, job satisfaction, and overall organizational performance.

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provide recommendations that can fuel growth, success, and

profitability for business in spite of the grave impact of

COVID-19.

### Answers

The global pandemic, COVID-19 has had a significant impact on businesses **worldwide**. Business owners must innovate and adopt new practices that will fuel growth, success, and profitability. To address this, the following recommendations are made for **business **growth in the face of COVID-19:1.

Technology Integration: Business owners must explore and integrate technology into their business processes. The adoption of digital solutions for customer service, sales, and marketing is a proven way to improve operational efficiency, reduce costs and enhance **customer **experience.

Businesses that can easily pivot to remote work are more likely to survive the pandemic.2. Diversify Revenue Streams: Businesses that rely on one source of revenue are at a higher risk of failure in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Diversifying revenue streams will help **businesses **spread their risk and increase their chances of surviving this pandemic.

Businesses can consider exploring new product lines or services that align with their core competencies.3. Increase Online Presence: With social distancing measures in place, businesses need to have a strong online presence to reach customers. They can consider investing in Search **Engine **Optimization (SEO) to boost their online visibility or social media campaigns to connect with customers.

4. Cost Optimization: During a crisis, cost optimization is essential for business survival. Business owners should identify areas where they can cut costs without **compromising** quality

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: What is customer equity? A. The total of the discounted lifetime value of all customers B. The total number of customers acquired by a firm over the lifetime of the organization C. The customer's likelihood of not switching to a competitor D. The total sales generated by all customers in the most recent year

### Answers

**Customer** equity is the total of the discounted lifetime value of all customers (option A).

Customer equity is the total of the discounted lifetime value of all customers. The term "lifetime value" refers to the estimated future revenue that a company will earn from a customer over the course of their relationship. Because this value is discounted to account for **inflation**, interest rates, and other factors, it is expressed in today's dollars.Customer equity is a way of measuring the value of a company's customer base. It takes into account not only the total number of customers but also the quality of those customers.

Customers with higher lifetime values, for example, will contribute more to a company's customer equity than those with lower lifetime values. Customer equity can be used as a performance metric to gauge the effectiveness of a company's **marketing** and customer service efforts. It can also be used to compare the value of a company's customer base to that of its competitors. The correct option is A.

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Use Excel functions to solve the following problem:

The cost of utilities, taxes and maintenance on a home is $3,000 per year. Calculate the amount of money that would have to be invested now at 8% annual interest rate to cover these expenses for the next 5 years.

### Answers

The answer is We need to **invest **$12,746.88 now at 8% annual interest rate to cover the **expenses** for the next 5 years. To calculate the amount of money that would have to be invested now at 8% annual **interest rate **to cover the expenses for the next 5 years.

We can use the **Present Value** (PV) formula in Excel which is: PV(rate, nper, pmt, [fv], [type]) where rate is the interest rate, nper is the total number of periods, pmt is the **payment **amount, fv is the future value (optional), and type is the type of payment (optional).In this case, the annual payment is $3,000 for 5 years, the **interest rate** is 8%, and there is no future value. Therefore, we can use the PV function in Excel as follows:=PV(8%,5,-3000)This will give us the present value (PV) of the payments that need to be made for the next 5 years. The result will be a negative number, which means that we need to invest this amount now to cover the expenses. We can format the result as a positive number by using the ABS function which returns the absolute value of a number.

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The following situation is based on a real event where supply, demand, or both is affected. Using paper, depict the situation with a carefully labelled graph. After you have drawn the graph, write an explanation that addresses the following questions Which curve(s) shifts, in which direction, and why? What happens to equilibrium price and quantity? Be sure to identify cases for which the direction of change is ambiguous (given the information you have) Market Solar Panels Events: Producers of solar panels find that key materials needed for making solar panels, like polysilicon and copper, have become much more expensive. At the same time, state governments have cut back on programs that subsidize homeowners for the purchase and installation of solar panels.

### Answers

The situation in the **market **for solar panels is affected by an increase in the prices of key materials used in **production **and a reduction in government subsidies for homeowners.

This situation can be depicted on a graph to analyze the shifts in supply and **demand curves**, and their impact on equilibrium price and quantity. In this scenario, we can expect both the supply and demand curves for solar panels to be affected. The increase in the prices of key materials, such as polysilicon and copper, will cause the production costs for solar panels to rise. This leads to a decrease in the supply of solar panels, resulting in a leftward shift of the supply curve.

Simultaneously, the reduction in government **subsidies **for homeowners decreases the affordability and incentive for consumers to purchase and install solar panels. This decrease in demand is represented by a leftward shift of the demand curve for solar panels.

The combined effect of these shifts in supply and demand curves is a decrease in both the equilibrium price and quantity of solar panels. The increase in production costs reduces the quantity supplied, while the decrease in demand lowers the quantity demanded. However, the specific **magnitude **of the shifts and their impact on the equilibrium price and quantity will depend on the relative magnitude of the changes in supply and demand.

It is important to note that the direction of change in equilibrium price and quantity may be **ambiguous **without more information about the relative magnitudes of the shifts in supply and demand. The graph would provide a visual representation of the initial equilibrium and the potential shifts, but without numerical values, it is difficult to determine the precise changes in price and quantity.

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Explain in detail about the right risk management tools to

address risks in the portfolio management.

### Answers

**Risk management **tools play a crucial role in addressing risks in portfolio management. These tools include diversification, hedging, stop-loss orders, and risk **assessment models**.

They help investors mitigate potential losses, protect their portfolio value, and make informed investment decisions.

1. Diversification: Diversifying a portfolio by investing in different asset classes, industries, and geographic regions helps reduce the impact of individual security or **sector-specific risks**. By spreading investments across a variety of assets, investors can potentially offset losses in one area with gains in another, reducing overall portfolio risk.

2. Hedging: Hedging involves taking offsetting positions in the market to mitigate specific risks. For example, using options or futures contracts, investors can protect against potential losses due to adverse price movements. Hedging strategies allow investors to limit downside risk while still participating in **potential upside gains**.

3. Stop-Loss Orders: Stop-loss orders are risk management tools that automatically trigger the sale of an asset if its price reaches a predetermined level. By setting a stop-loss order, investors can limit potential losses by exiting a position before it declines further. This tool helps protect against **significant losses during periods **of market volatility or unexpected market events.

4. Risk Assessment Models: Risk assessment models, such as Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR), provide quantitative measures of portfolio risk. These models use statistical techniques to estimate the potential losses a portfolio may experience under different market conditions. By understanding the risk exposure of their portfolio, investors can adjust their **investment strategies **accordingly and allocate resources more effectively.

In conclusion, utilizing the right risk management tools is essential for addressing risks in portfolio management. Diversification, hedging, stop-loss orders, and risk assessment models all contribute to minimizing potential losses, protecting portfolio value, and improving overall risk-adjusted returns. By **employing a combination **of these tools, investors can enhance their risk management practices and make more informed investment decisions.

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A monopolist can produce at constant marginal and average cost of MC = AC = 5 and faces a market

demand curve of 0 = 53 - P

a) Suppose unlike a simultaneous model assumption of part b) to d), firm 1 has a first mover advantage (market leader) and firm 2 is a follower, what will be each firm's profit maximizing output (91 and 92), market price, each firm's profits and two firm's (duopolies) total profit in this Stackelberg sequential model

### Answers

Firm 1, which has the first-mover advantage, is known as the leader in the** Stackelberg model**, while firm 2 is known as the follower. To maximize its own **profit**, the leader chooses its output level based on the follower's reaction.

The follower's response to the leader's production decision is expressed by its own profit-maximizing decision.

The following calculation reveals each firm's profit-maximizing output levels and the market price:

According to the market demand function, Q = 53 - P, where P is the market price. The total quantity supplied is Q = 91 + 92 = 183. The profit-maximizing output levels of both the leader and the follower can be determined by equating the marginal cost to the marginal revenue as follows:

Leader’s profit-maximizing output is 91:MC = MR1 => 5 = (53 - 2Q)/91 => Q1 = 43/2Follower’s profit-maximizing output is 92:MC = MR2 => 5 = (53 - Q1 - Q2)/92 => Q2 = 47/2.

Market Price: P = 53 - (Q1 + Q2)/2 = 31.

The leader's profit can be calculated by substituting the leader's output decision into its total revenue function as follows:TR1 = P × Q1 = 31 × 91 = 2,821Profit of Leader: Profit1 = TR1 - TC1 = 2,821 - 5 × 91 = 2,376.

The follower's profit can be calculated by substituting the follower's output decision into its total** revenue function** as follows:TR2 = P × Q2 = 31 × 92 = 2,852Profit of Follower: Profit2 = TR2 - TC2 = 2,852 - 5 × 92 = 2,372.

Total profit of both the firms = Profit1 + Profit2 = 2,376 + 2,372 = 4,748Therefore, the leader and the follower's profit-maximizing output levels are 91 and 92, respectively. The market price is 31. The leader's and follower's profits are 2,376 and 2,372, respectively. The total profit of both the firms is 4,748.

A **monopolist **can charge any price, but a perfectly competitive firm must sell at the market price because it has no control over it. The monopolist's demand curve is the market demand curve, whereas the competitive firm's demand curve is horizontal (perfectly elastic) at the market price. As a result, a monopolist would produce less than the market price. The monopolist's marginal revenue curve is below the market demand curve, indicating that the price must be lowered to sell more of the product.

The **profit-maximizing output** level for a monopolist is the level where marginal revenue equals marginal cost. The monopolist can set a price above its marginal cost since it has no rivals, but it must lower its price if it wishes to sell more. A monopolist has a downward-sloping demand curve, whereas a perfectly competitive firm has a horizontal demand curve. This implies that the monopolist must lower the price in order to sell more units, whereas the competitive firm may sell as many units as it wishes at the current **market price**.

A monopolist can set any price it wants, but the price elasticity of demand affects the number of units sold at each price. The marginal revenue curve is always below the demand curve for a monopolist, implying that the price must be lowered to sell more units. On the other hand, a competitive firm can only sell at the market price, which is horizontal.

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Compute and Use the Degree of Operating Leverage [LO2-8] Engberg Company installs lawn sod in home yards. The company's most recent monthly contribution format income statement follows: Required: 1. What is the company's degree of operating leverage? 2. Using the degree of operating leverage, estimate the impact on net operating income of a 25% increase in unit sales. 3. Construct a new contribution format income statement for the company assuming a 25% increase in unit sales. Complete this question by entering your answers in the tabs below. What is the company's degree of operating leverage? Notes Round your answer to 2 decimal places.

### Answers

The formula for computing** the degree of operating leverage** (DOL) is Contribution margin ÷ Net operating income.

DOL measures the extent to which a percentage change in sales contributes to a larger percentage change in net operating income (NOI). DOL is expressed as a ratio of contribution margin to** net operating income**. To figure out the degree of operating leverage for Engberg Company, we'll use the most recent contribution format income statement.1.

What is the company's degree of operating leverage?

**Contribution Margin** = $300,000 - $150,000 = $150,000

Degree of Operating Leverage (DOL) = Contribution Margin / Net Operating Income

= $150,000 / $75,000

= 2.00 (rounded off to 2 decimal places)

2. Using the degree of operating leverage, estimate the impact on net operating income of a 25% increase in unit sales.

To determine the impact on net operating income of a 25% increase in unit sales, use the following equation:

Percent change in NOI = Degree of Operating Leverage x Percent change in Sales

= 2.00 x 25%= 50% increase in net operating income

Therefore, if unit sales increase by 25%, the company's net operating income will increase by 50%.3. Construct a new contribution format income statement for the company assuming a 25% increase in unit sales. The new contribution format income statement for Engberg Company after a 25% increase in unit sales is as follows:

Contributions by Sales (25% increase) = $187,500 (75,000 + 18,750)

Total Contributions = $487,500 ($300,000 + $187,500)

Less: **Variable Expenses** = $243,750 ($150,000 + $93,750)

Contribution Margin = $243,750

Fixed Expenses = $ 97,500

Net Operating Income = $146,250 ($243,750 - $97,500)

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Joe is a smoker. He has a utility function for cigarettes smoked indoors (q1) and a composite good (q2) given by U(q1,q2) = 15q10.6 + q2 . Joe's income is $1,000 and faces prices p1 = 5 and p2 = 1. The government is planning to ban indoor smoking. How much money would we have to give Joe to compensate him for this ban?

### Answers

The **government **should provide Joe with $44.8 as compensation for the ban on indoor smoking.

**Compensated variation **(CV) is a concept used to measure the amount of income change necessary to maintain an individual's utility level after a policy change. It represents the monetary compensation required to keep the individual as well off as they were before the policy change, considering the new set of prices.

To calculate the compensated variation in this scenario, let's consider Joe's situation. Joe has a utility function represented as U(q1, q2) = 15q1^0.6 + q2, where q1 represents the quantity of cigarettes and q2 represents Joe's income. His budget constraint can be written as P1q1 + P2q2 = M, where P1 and P2 are the prices of cigarettes and income, respectively, and M is Joe's total income.

Solving for q2 in the budget **constraint equation**, we find q2 = (M - P1q1)/P2. Let's substitute the given values: P1 = 5, P2 = 1, and M = 1000. Therefore, q2 = (1000 - 5q1)/1.

Next, let's determine Joe's optimal consumption bundle using the Lagrangian method. The Lagrangian function is defined as L(q1, q2, λ) = 15q1^0.6 + q2 + λ(1000 - 5q1 - q2), where λ is the Lagrange multiplier.

Taking the first-order conditions, we **differentiate **L with respect to q1, q2, and λ, and set the derivatives equal to zero. This yields the following equations:

∂L/∂q1 = 15(0.6)q1^(-0.4) - 5λ = 0

∂L/∂q2 = 1 - λ = 0

∂L/∂λ = 1000 - 5q1 - q2 = 0

Solving these equations, we find:

q1 = 25.57 cigarettes

q2 = 874.29 dollars

Now, let's calculate Joe's utility level at the **optimal bundle**. Using his utility function, we substitute the values of q1 and q2:

U(q1, q2) = 15q1^0.6 + q2

= 15(25.57)^0.6 + 874.29

= 1044.8

Suppose the government bans indoor smoking, resulting in an infinite price for q1 (cigarettes). Consequently, Joe can no longer consume q1. His new budget constraint becomes P2q2 = M, which simplifies to q2 = 1000, considering the given values.

We can calculate Joe's new utility level using his original utility function but with q1 = 0 and q2 = 1000:

U(q1, q2) = 15q1^0.6 + q2

= 15(0)^0.6 + 1000

= 1000

The new utility level is lower than the original level. To compensate Joe and maintain his well-being as before the ban, the government needs to provide him with an amount equal to the compensated variation (CV). The CV is the difference between his original utility level and the new utility level:

CV = U(q1, q2) - U(0, 1000)

= 1044.8 - 1000

= $44.8

Therefore, Joe should receive $44.8 from the government as payment for the indoor smoking ban.

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Bond X is a premium bond making semiannual payments. The bond has a coupon rate of 9.3 percent, a YTM of 7.3 percent, and has 18 years to maturity. Bond Y is a discount bond making semiannual payments. This bond has a coupon rate of 7.3 percent, a YTM of 9.3 percent, and also has 18 years to maturity. Assume the interest rates remain unchanged and both bonds have a par value of $1,000. a. What are the prices of these bonds today? (Do not round intermediate calculations and round your answer to 2 decimal places, e.g., 32.16.) b. What do you expect the prices of these bonds to be in one year? (Do not round intermediate calculations and round your answer to 2 decimal places, e.g., 32.16.) c. What do you expect the prices of these bonds to be in three years? (Do not round intermediate calculations and round your answer to 2 decimal places, e.g., 32.16.) d. What do you expect the prices of these bonds to be in eight years? (Do not round intermediate calculations and round your answers to 2 decimal places, e.g.,32.16.) e. What do you expect the prices of these bonds to be in 12 years? (Do not round intermediate calculations and round your answers to 2 decimal places, e.g., 32.16.) f. What do you expect the prices of these bonds to be in 18 years? (Do not round intermediate calculations.)

### Answers

a. The **price of** **Bond **X is $1,267.63, and the price of Bond Y is $685.08 today.

Bond X has a coupon rate of 9.3 percent, a YTM of 7.3 percent, and 18 years to maturity.

Bond Y has a coupon rate of 7.3 percent, a YTM of 9.3 percent, and also has 18 years to maturity.

We can calculate the bond prices using the **present value** formula.

Bond X price today = $1,000 × [(1 − 1 / (1 + 0.073 / 2) ^ (2 × 18)) / (0.073 / 2)] + $1,000 / (1 + 0.073 / 2) ^ (2 × 18)= $1,267.63

Bond Y price today = $1,000 × [(1 − 1 / (1 + 0.093 / 2) ^ (2 × 18)) / (0.093 / 2)] + $1,000 / (1 + 0.093 / 2) ^ (2 × 18)= $685.08

Therefore, the price of Bond X is $1,267.63, and the price of Bond Y is $685.08 today.

b. In one year, the price of Bond X can be calculated by discounting its one-year **cash flows **at 3.65% (one-half of the YTM of 7.3%).

Bond X price in one year = $45.90 × (1 − 1 / (1 + 0.037 / 2) ^ 36) / (0.037 / 2) + $1,000 / (1 + 0.037 / 2) ^ 36

Bond X price in one year = $1,350.66

Similarly, the price of Bond Y in one year can be calculated by discounting its one-year cash flows at 4.65% (one-half of the YTM of 9.3%).

Bond Y price in one year = $36.50 × (1 − 1 / (1 + 0.0465 / 2) ^ 36) / (0.0465 / 2) + $1,000 / (1 + 0.0465 / 2) ^ 36

Bond Y price in one year = $573.99

c. In three years, the price of Bond X can be calculated by discounting its three-year cash flows at 4.325% (one-half of the YTM of 8.65%).

Bond X price in three years = $45.90 × (1 − 1 / (1 + 0.04325 / 2) ^ (2 × 15)) / (0.04325 / 2) + $1,000 / (1 + 0.04325 / 2) ^ (2 × 15)

Bond X price in three years = $1,499.87

Similarly, the price of Bond Y in three years can be calculated by discounting its three-year cash flows at 6.165% (one-half of the YTM of 12.33%).

Bond Y price in three years = $36.50 × (1 − 1 / (1 + 0.06165 / 2) ^ (2 × 15)) / (0.06165 / 2) + $1,000 / (1 + 0.06165 / 2) ^ (2 × 15)

Bond Y price in three years = $552.06

d. In eight years, the price of Bond X can be calculated by discounting its eight-year cash flows at 3.65% (one-half of the YTM of 7.3%).

Bond X price in eight years = $45.90 × (1 − 1 / (1 + 0.037 / 2) ^ (2 × 10)) / (0.037 / 2) + $1,000 / (1 + 0.037 / 2) ^ (2 × 10)= Bond X price in eight years = $1,621.92

Similarly, the price of Bond Y in eight years can be calculated by discounting its eight-year cash flows at 4.65% (one-half of the YTM of 9.3%).

Bond Y price in eight years = $36.50 × (1 − 1 / (1 + 0.0465 / 2) ^ (2 × 10)) / (0.0465 / 2) + $1,000 / (1 + 0.0465 / 2) ^ (2 × 10)

Bond Y price in eight years == $541.57

e. In 12 years, the price of Bond X can be calculated by discounting its twelve-year cash flows at 3.65% (one-half of the YTM of 7.3%).

Bond X price in 12 years = $45.90 × (1 − 1 / (1 + 0.037 / 2) ^ (2 × 6)) / (0.037 / 2) + $1,000 / (1 + 0.037 / 2) ^ (2 × 6)= Bond X price in 12 years = $1,715.13

Similarly, the price of Bond Y in 12 years can be calculated by discounting its twelve-year cash flows at 4.65% (one-half of the YTM of 9.3%).

Bond Y price in 12 years = $36.50 × (1 − 1 / (1 + 0.0465 / 2) ^ (2 × 6)) / (0.0465 / 2) + $1,000 / (1 + 0.0465 / 2) ^ (2 × 6)= Bond Y price in 12 years = $538.25

f. In 18 years, the price of both bonds will be equal to their par value. Therefore, the price of Bond X and Bond Y in 18 years will be $1,000.

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You have an idea for a new product and your current firm

will not let you pursue it.

A. What should you consider when deciding if you want to

go off on your own and start a business producing and sell

### Answers

If your current company doesn’t allow you to pursue your new **product **idea, there are several factors you should consider before **deciding **to start your own business and producing and selling the product. These factors include the following.

Market **Demand **The first thing you need to consider when deciding whether or not to start your own business is market demand. Is there a demand for your product .You need to **evaluate **whether your product will solve a problem or meet a need that other products on the market are not currently fulfilling.

Funding and Resources You need to **determine **how much funding you will need to produce and market your product. You also need to determine whether you have the necessary resources and skills to run your own business. You should also consider whether you have the support of your family and friends.

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Required 1. Assume you work for an organization that intends to use process mining to examine several of its processes. The first process you are considering is hining a new employee to work for your large company, To get started, you must: a List the activities that are likely to be recorded in a database related to hining an employee. b. Brainstom what types of analyses you could perform by looking at the activities and time stamps for those activities. Suggest three analyses that you could perform if this data was collectē d and put into a process mining dashboard As you consider the analyses, think about analyses that would be useful to intemal and extemal auditors, the HR Department and other groups. 2. For the scenario in the first question, consider what additional data could be added to the basic analyses. Identify three additional pieces of data that could be added to your process mining data set and briefly explain what additional analyses or insights you would gain by adding them. 3. Use the intemet to find; or brainstom on your own, three accounting scenarios in which process mining would be useful. Be specific in describing the data needed for creating the process mining dashboards. Identify how process mining could improve the situation.

### Answers

By identifying inefficiencies and improvement areas, process **mining** can help reduce costs, save time, and increase efficiency.

1. The activities that are likely to be recorded in a database related to hining an employee are:

1. Posting of job vacancies in job search engines and company's social media platforms.

2. Receiving resumes and cover letters from **candidates** through **email** or online platforms.

3. Screening of resumes and cover letters and contacting the potential candidates.

4. Conducting tests and interviews to evaluate the candidate's skills and experiences.

5. Verification of references and documents submitted by the selected candidate.

6. Employment contract preparation and verification of information before signing the contract.

7. Creation of employee ID, bank accounts, and other legal documents related to hiring.

2. Three analyses that could be performed using the activities and time stamps for those activities are:

1. Cycle time analysis to know the time taken to complete the hiring process and find the areas of improvement.

2. Compliance analysis to ensure all the legal formalities are completed before the candidate is hired.

3. Resource utilization analysis to determine the utilization of the available resources and reallocate them for better results.

3. Three additional pieces of data that could be added to the process mining data set are:

1. Education qualifications to analyze the skill set of the candidates hired.

2. Feedback from employees on their onboarding experience to improve the onboarding process.

3. Data on the performance of the employees after hiring to determine the effectiveness of the recruitment process.

4. Three accounting scenarios in which process mining would be useful are:

1. Accounts Payable Process:

Analyzing the invoice processing time, the number of invoices processed, and the time taken to resolve the discrepancies.

2. Order-to-cash process:

Analyzing the time taken for the delivery of the product or service after receiving the order, the time taken for payment, and the order processing time.

3. Payroll Process:

Analyzing the time taken to process the payroll, the number of errors in processing payroll, and the time taken to resolve errors.

By identifying inefficiencies and improvement areas, process mining can help reduce costs, save time, and increase efficiency.

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difference between international organization and international institution

### Answers

**International Organization** and International Institution are two terms that are often used interchangeably, but they have** distinct **differences.

International Organization

An international organization refers to an entity established by formal agreement between multiple sovereign states or nations. It is typically created to promote **cooperation** and address common issues or challenges on a global scale. International organizations have defined structures, rules, and objectives that guide their activities. Examples of international organizations include the United Nations (UN), World Health Organization (WHO), and International Monetary Fund (IMF). They often have a broad membership and are involved in various fields such as diplomacy, security, development, and humanitarian aid.

International Institution:

An international institution, on the other hand, refers to a more specific and narrower entity that serves a particular purpose within the global context. It can be a specialized agency or a subsidiary body of an international organization. International institutions focus on specific areas such as trade, finance, health, or security. They may have a more limited membership or be **composed of experts**, professionals, or representatives from relevant stakeholders. Examples of international institutions include the World Trade Organization (WTO), International Court of Justice (ICJ), and World Bank.

In summary, while both international organizations and international institutions operate at the global level, international organizations are overarching entities with a broader scope, membership, and objectives, whereas international institutions are more specialized bodies within the framework of international organizations, focusing on specific areas or issues.

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