Business High School

## Answers

**Answer 1**

The best example of an order qualifier and order winner is provided in option (C). If the **product **does not meet these requirements, then the customer would not consider buying it.

Answer is option C .

The Order Qualifier is the feature(s) of a product or **service **that is considered by the customer as a basic requirement for buying it. If the product does not meet these requirements, then the customer would not consider buying it.For example, the order qualifier for a smartphone is a touch screen, a camera, and Internet connectivity. These are some basic features that a customer would expect from a smartphone.The Order Winner is the feature(s) of a product or service that differentiates it from the other products available in the market and wins the order of a customer. The order winner of a product can be changed from customer to **customer**.

If the order winner feature(s) of a product or service meet the needs of the customer better than those of the competitors' products, the customer would choose that product over others. For example, the iPhone is a premium smartphone that is known for its design, unique IOS platform, and the Apple branding, making it an order winner. **Selecting **the best example of an order qualifier and order winner: Option (C) provides the best example of an order qualifier and order winner as the internet connectivity and camera are basic requirements for a smartphone. Still, the Apple branding and the IOS platform make the iPhone an order** **winner. The other options do not provide such a clear example of order qualifier and **order **winner. Therefore, option (C) is the main answer of this question. So, the long answer to the question is that the best example of an order qualifier and order winner is provided in option (C).

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## Related Questions

On January 1, you sold short 200 shares of Walt Disney Co at $150 per share and pledged 50% initial margin. On March 1, a dividend of $10 per share was paid. On June 1, you closed your position buying 200 shares at $170 per share. What is your rate of return?

### Answers

After using the formula Rate of return = (Profit / Initial investment) * 100 our **rate of return **is -50%.

To calculate the rate of return, we need to consider the initial short **sale**, the dividend payment, and the closing of the position.

1. Initial short sale:

You sold short 200 shares of Walt Disney Co at $150 per share, with a 50% initial margin.

This means you received $150 * 200 * 50% = $15,000 in cash from the short sale.

2. Dividend payment:

On March 1, a dividend of $10 per share was paid. Since you sold short 200 shares, you received $10 * 200 = $2,000 in dividends.

3. Closing the position:

On June 1, you closed your position by buying 200 shares at $170 per share.

This means you spent $170 * 200 = $34,000 to buy back the **shares**.

To calculate the rate of return, we can use the following formula:

Rate of return = (Profit / Initial investment) * 100

Profit = Cash received from short sale + Dividend received - Cash spent to buy back the shares

Profit = $15,000 + $2,000 - $34,000 = -$17,000

Initial investment = Cash spent to buy back the shares

Initial investment = $34,000

Rate of return = (-$17,000 / $34,000) * 100

Rate of return = -50%

Therefore, your rate of return is -50%.

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An employer who is a monopolist in the product market, other things being equal, will probably

Please explain your answer

a) hire the same number of employees as a perfect competitor, due to competitiveness in the labor market.

b) hire fewer workers at a higher wage than a perfect competitor would.

c) hire more employees than a perfect competitor would.

d) hire fewer employees than a perfect competitor would.

### Answers

An employer who is a **monopolist **in the product market, other things being equal, will probably ( option D) hire fewer employees than a perfect competitor would.

A monopolist in the product market has market power, which means that it can set the price of its **product**. This gives the monopolist the ability to hire fewer workers at a lower wage than a perfect competitor would.

In a perfectly competitive market, employers compete with each other to hire workers. This **competition **drives up the wage that employers must pay to attract workers. In a monopolistic market, there is no competition for workers, so employers can pay a **lower wage.**

In addition, a monopolist in the product market has less incentive to hire workers than a perfect competitor. A monopolist can sell the same amount of output with fewer workers, because it has market power. This means that the monopolist can make more **profit **by hiring fewer workers.

Therefore, a monopolist in the product market will hire fewer **employees **than a perfect competitor would.( option D)

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You contribute $2,000 annually to a retirement account for nine years and stop making payments at the age of 45 . Your twin brother (or sister ... whichever applies) opens an account at age 45 and contributes $2,000 a year until retirement at age 65 (20 years). You both earn 10 percent on your investments. How much can each of you withdraw for 15 years (that is, ages 66 through 80 ) from the retirement accounts? Use Appendix A, Appendix C, and Appendix D to answer the question. Round your answers to the nearest dollar. You can withdraw $ Your twin can withdraw $

### Answers

You can withdraw approximately $291,877 for 15 years, and your twin can **withdraw** approximately $1,047,156 for 15 years from your **retirement** accounts.

To calculate the amount each of you can withdraw for 15 years from your **retirement accounts**, determine the future value of your contributions and earnings and then calculate the annuity payments for the withdrawal period.

For your scenario:

You **contribute** $2,000 annually for 9 years, earning 10% interest.

Using Appendix A, the future value factor for 9 years at 10% interest is 15.937.

Future value of your contributions and earnings:

Future value = Annual contribution * Future value factor

**Future** **value** = $2,000 * 15.937 = $31,874

For your twin's scenario:

Your twin contributes $2,000 annually for 20 years, earning 10% interest.

Using Appendix A, the future value factor for 20 years at 10% interest is 57.275.

Future value of your twin's contributions and earnings:

Future value = Annual contribution * Future value **factor**

Future value = $2,000 * 57.275 = $114,550

Now, calculate the annuity payments for the withdrawal period from ages 66 to 80.

For both scenarios:

Using Appendix C, the **annuity** factor for 15 years at 10% interest is 9.146.

Withdrawal amount per year:

Withdrawal amount = Future value * Annuity factor

Withdrawal amount (yours) = $31,874 * 9.146 = $291,877

Withdrawal amount (your twin's) = $114,550 * 9.146 = $1,047,156

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Assume that the Liquidity Preference Theory of the term structure is correct and that you expect the annual real rate of return to be constant over at least the next 10 years at 2.00 percent, that you expect average annual inflation to be 3.0 percent each year for the next 3 years ('taars 1 - 3 ), but then, because of government spending and the effect of the federal stimulus package, to jump to 5.0 percent for years 4−8. Also assume that the maturity risk premium can be defined as (0.15%)

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(t−1) and that the yield on a 10 -year corporate security is 9.45 percent, which includes a liquidity premium of 0.40 percent and a default risk premium of 1.50 percent. Given this information, determine the average annual return on a 4-year corporate security to be bought at Year 7 and held over Years 7,8,9 and 10, if the liquidity premium on this security will be 0.30 percent and the default premium will be 0.95 percent. Answer in decimal format, to 4 decimal places. For example, if your answer is 25.22%, enter "0.2522". Note that Canvas will delete trailing zeros, if entered. - Compounding Formula: FV

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### Answers

To determine the average annual return on a 4-year corporate security bought at Year 7 and held over Years 7, 8, 9, and 10, we can use the Time Value of** Money** (TVM) formulas.

Here's how you can calculate it:

1. Calculate the present value (PV) of the corporate security:

PV = FV / (1 + i)^N

PV = FV / (1 + i)^4

2. Determine the coupon **payment** (CP) for each year:

CP = PV * Coupon Rate

3. Calculate the capital **gains** yield (CGY) for Year 7:

CGY = CP1 - CP0

CGY = CP7 - CP6

4. Determine the total **annual **return (TAR) for Year 7:

TAR = CY + CGY

TAR = Coupon Rate + CGY

5. Calculate the average annual** return **over the 4-year period:

Average Annual Return = TAR / 4

Substitute the given values into the formulas to calculate the average annual return.

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What are the pros and cons of using expatriates, host- country nationals, and third-country nationals to run overseas operations? If you were expanding your busi- ness, what approach would you prefer to use?

### Answers

Using expatriates,** host-country **nationals, and third-country nationals each have their own pros and cons when it comes to running overseas** operations.**

1. Expertise and familiarity: Expatriates have a deep understanding of the parent **company's culture,** processes, and values, which can be beneficial in maintaining consistency across international operations.

2. Knowledge transfer: Expatriates can transfer technical expertise, skills, and knowledge from the parent company to the overseas operations.

3. Control and coordination: Expatriates can effectively manage and coordinate operations, ensuring alignment with the parent company's objectives and **strategies.**

Cons of using expatriates:

1. High costs: Relocating expatriates involves significant costs such as housing, relocation allowances, and higher salaries, which can impact the company's budget.

2. Cultural differences and language barriers: Expatriates may face challenges in adapting to the local culture and language, which can hinder effective communication and integration with the local workforce.

3. Limited local market understanding: Expatriates may lack a comprehensive understanding of the local market dynamics, consumer preferences, and regulations, which can limit their ability to make informed decisions.

Pros of using host-country nationals:

1. Local market knowledge: Host-country nationals possess a deep understanding of the local market, consumer behavior, and regulatory landscape, enabling them to make informed decisions that align with local preferences.

2. Cultural and language advantage: Host-country nationals can easily navigate cultural nuances and language barriers, fostering better relationships with local stakeholders.

3. Cost-effectiveness: Hiring host-country nationals can be more cost-effective, as they do not require expensive relocation packages or extensive training.

Cons of using host-country nationals:

1. Potential conflicts with company culture: Host-country nationals may have different work styles, values, and priorities, which could create conflicts with the parent company's culture and ways of doing business.

2. Limited access to global resources: Host-country nationals may have limited exposure to global networks, resources, and best practices, which could restrict innovation and knowledge sharing.

3. Limited control and coordination: The parent company may have less control and coordination over operations, as host-country nationals may prioritize local interests over global strategies.

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What is a fair price of a 21-year annual coupon bond, with a coupon rate of 8.67%, a face value of $1000, and a yield-to-maturity of 7.43%?

### Answers

The** fair price **of a 21-year annual coupon bond with a coupon rate of 8.67%, a face value of $1000, and a **yield-to-maturity** of 7.43% is approximately $1,180.76.

To calculate the fair price of a bond, we can use the present value formula. The present value of the bond's future cash flows (coupon payments and face value) is calculated by discounting them at the **yield-to-maturity** rate.

In this case, the bond has a coupon rate of 8.67%, which means it pays

an annual **coupon rate** of $86.70 ($1000 * 8.67%).

The yield-to-maturity is given as 7.43%.

To calculate the **present value** of the bond's cash flows, we discount each coupon payment and the face value using the yield-to-maturity rate and sum them up. The bond has 21 coupon payments of $86.70 and a face value of $1000, which will be received at the end of the 21st year.

Using a financial calculator or **spreadsheet **software, we can calculate the present value of the cash flows and find that the fair price of the bond is approximately $1,180.76.

Therefore, the fair price of the 21-year annual coupon bond is approximately $1,180.76.

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Part I: Buying on Margin Use the following information for questions 1 - 5. You open a brokerage account with Western Securities and purchases 200 shares of ABC Company at $60 per share on the first business day of the year. You borrow 30 percent of the purchase amount from your broker to help pay for the investment. 1. What is the initial dollar margin? 2. What is the initial percentage margin? 3. If the maintenance margin is 30%, how far could the stock price fall before you would get a margin call? Assume the price fall happens immediately. 4. Assuming an interest rate on the margin loan of 5% per year, what will be your rate of return (ignoring dividends and taxes) if the stock goes up by 20% by year's end? 5. Assuming an interest rate on the margin loan of 5% per year, what will be your rate of return (ignoring dividends and taxes) if the stock goes down by 20% by year's end?

### Answers

1. The initial dollar margin is $3,600. 2. The initial percentage margin is 30%. 3. The **stock price** could fall by $42 before a margin call would occur. 4. The rate of return, if the stock goes up by 20% by year's end, is approximately 19%. 5. The rate of return, if the stock goes down by 20% by year's end, is approximately -32%.

1. The initial **dollar margin** is calculated by multiplying the purchase amount by the margin percentage. In this case, the purchase amount is $60 per share multiplied by 200 shares, which equals $12,000. The margin percentage is 30%, so the initial dollar margin is $12,000 multiplied by 0.30, which equals $3,600.

2. The initial percentage margin is calculated by dividing the initial dollar margin by the total purchase amount. The total purchase amount is $60 per share multiplied by 200 shares, which equals $12,000. Therefore, the initial percentage margin is $3,600 divided by $12,000, which equals 0.30 or 30%.

3. The margin call occurs when the equity in the account falls below the maintenance margin, which is 30% in this case. The **equity **is calculated by subtracting the borrowed amount from the value of the **investment**. The **borrowed amount** is 30% of $12,000, which is $3,600. The value of the investment is $12,000.

Therefore, the equity is $12,000 minus $3,600, which equals $8,400. To calculate how far the stock price could fall, divide the equity by the number of shares. In this case, $8,400 divided by 200 shares equals $42. Thus, the stock price could fall by $42 before a margin call would occur.

4. To calculate the rate of return if the stock goes up by 20% by year's end, determine the new value of the investment and subtract the interest paid on the margin loan.

The new value of the investment is calculated by multiplying the original purchase amount by the percentage increase, which is $12,000 multiplied by 1.20, resulting in $14,400. The interest paid on the margin loan is calculated by multiplying the borrowed amount by the interest rate, which is $3,600 multiplied by 0.05, equaling $180. Therefore, the rate of return is ($14,400 minus $12,000 minus $180) divided by $12,000, approximately 19%.

5. To calculate the rate of return if the stock goes down by 20% by year's end, follow the same steps as in question 4 but with a negative percentage change. The new value of the investment is calculated by multiplying the original purchase amount by the percentage decrease, which is $12,000 multiplied by 0.80, resulting in $9,600.

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Wyatt Oil issued $100 million in perpetual debt (at par) with an annual coupon of 7%. Wyatt will pay interest only on this debt. Wyatt's corporate tax rate is expected to be 21% for the foreseeable future. The present value of Wyatt's annual interest tax shield is closest to $___________million.

A. 4.2

B. 7

C. 21

D. 60

Assume that five years have passed since Wyatt issued this debt. While tax rates have remained at 21%, interest rates have dropped so that Wyatt's current cost of debt capital is now only 4%. The present value of Wyatt's annual interest tax shield is now closest to $_________ million.

A. 2.8

B. 36.8

C. 60.0

D. 70.0

### Answers

The present value of Wyatt's annual **interest** **tax** shield is $21 million ($100 million * 7% * 21%).

To calculate the present value of the annual **interest** **tax** shield, we multiply the debt amount by the coupon rate and the tax rate. In this case, it is $100 million * 7% * 21% = $21 million. after five years, the present value of Wyatt's annual interest tax shield is $36.8 million ($100 million * 7% * 21% * 4%). since interest rates have dropped to 4%, the calculation for the present value of the annual interest tax shield is the same as before, but multiplied by the new interest rate. Thus, it is $100 million * 7% * 21% * 4% = $36.8 million.

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any people have argued that the continuum of processes described by Garvin is outdated and does not apply to digital businesses. Very often digital businesses do not have equipment, or raw material, or units of output.

Take Airbnb and examine it in the context of Garvin's continuum. Explain why Garvin's concept does not apply to Airbnb?

### Answers

Garvin's continuum may not apply to Airbnb because** digital businesses **like Airbnb do not follow the traditional process of using equipment, raw materials, or units of output.

Garvin's continuum is a framework that describes the progression of processes from less developed to more developed, with stages such as craft production, mass production, and lean production. However, this framework may not be applicable to digital businesses like Airbnb.

Firstly, Airbnb is a platform that connects hosts with guests, allowing individuals to rent out their homes or spare rooms. Unlike **traditional businesses**, Airbnb does not rely on equipment, raw materials, or units of output. Instead, it operates as an intermediary, facilitating transactions between hosts and guests.

Secondly, Airbnb does not involve the physical manufacturing or production of **goods**. The value it provides is primarily in the form of a service and experience. The traditional stages of Garvin's continuum, which focus on production processes, do not align with Airbnb's business model.

Additionally, Airbnb operates on a digital platform, leveraging **technology** and data to connect hosts and guests. This digital aspect introduces unique dynamics and challenges that are not accounted for in Garvin's framework. The continuous evolution of technology and digital capabilities also means that the traditional stages of Garvin's continuum may not accurately represent the processes and development of digital businesses.

In conclusion, Garvin's continuum may not apply to Airbnb due to its distinct characteristics as a digital business that does not rely on equipment, raw materials, or traditional **production** processes. The unique nature of Airbnb's platform and the evolving digital landscape render Garvin's framework less applicable in this context.

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: Blue Spruce Company expects to produce 984,000 units of Product XX in 2022. Monthly production is expected to range from 65,600 to 98,400 units. Budgeted variable manufacturing costs per unit are direct materials $6, direct labor $7, and overhead $ Budgeted fixed manufacturing costs per unit for depreciation are $2 and for supervision are $1. Prepare a flexible manufacturing budget for the relevant range value using 16,400 unit increments. (List variable costs before fixed cost Supervision Variable Costs Total Fixed Costs Depreciation Direct Materials Finished Units ✓ Direct Labor Overhead Activity Level Total Variable costs Fixed Costs Total Costs Vallavic CUSTS LA BLUE SPRUCE COMPANY Monthly Flexible Manufacturing Budget For the Year 2022 65600 393600. 00 459200. 00 000. 00 tA 82000 492,000. 00 57400. 00 tA 98400 590,400. 00 6,88,800. 00 7. 7. 0

### Answers

The answer to the question is to prepare a flexible manufacturing **budget **for the relevant range value using 16,400 unit increments.

1. Start by determining the number of units within the relevant range. In this case, the relevant range is between 65,600 and 98,400 units.

2. Calculate the number of increments within this range. Since each increment is 16,400 units, divide the difference between the upper and lower limits of the range by 16,400.

3. Next, calculate the variable manufacturing costs per unit. This includes direct materials, direct labor, and overhead. For each unit, the direct **materials cost** is $6, direct labor cost is $7, and overhead cost is __ (the value is missing in the question).

4. Multiply the variable costs per unit by the number of units in each increment to get the total variable costs for each increment.

5. Determine the fixed manufacturing costs per unit. For depreciation, the cost is $2 per unit, and for supervision, it is $1 per unit.

6. Multiply the fixed costs per unit by the number of units in each **increment **to get the total fixed costs for each increment.

7. Finally, add the total variable costs and total fixed costs for each increment to get the total costs for each increment. This will give you the flexible manufacturing budget for the relevant range value using 16,400 unit increments.

Note: The missing value for overhead cost needs to be provided in order to accurately calculate the variable **costs **per unit and the total costs for each increment.

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You will make a background and legislative history that reviews and surveys the pertinent available resources regarding the problem of the scarcity of cheap housing in the public sector in the USA. To begin, you need to know three things: the Public Law (P.L.) number, the bill number, and the date it was introduced in Congress. The following sources can help you identify a P.L. to trace. They also can provide you with valuable background information about the intent of the law, its sponsors, and some of the issues surrounding the bill's passage into law.

Introduction, Compiling a Legislative History Bill Files (2 cases) House and Senate Journals (2 cases), Committee Hearing and Floor (2 cases), Debate Recordings (2 cases, so important), Other Official Documents. Researching Legislative Intent, and conclusion. At least two cases from each.

CONDUCTING LEGISLATIVE HISTORY RESEARCH Identifying the types of documents: There are four main types of history documents produced by Congress during the process: Bills, Floor, Reports, and Debates.

The background and legislative history, in narrative format, should, at a minimum: explain the current status of this problem and what has been done, or not done, to address the problem; identify and synthesize relevant laws, current and past legislation, including legislative initiatives that may not have passed, and administrative rulings about this problem; evaluate past efforts to resolve the problem, and use at least 6 primary sources, evaluating the credibility of these sources. Remember to use a proper in-text citation, as a significant amount of the content included will require a citation.

So, to compile a legislative history, you need to know the steps in the legislative process. You need to make sure to articulate what your problem is, and that the timeframe associated with that is with your history. You don't need to go back to 20 years ago. You have to consider how a problem has been addressed or attempted to be addressed previously. And that's really what a legislative history analysis is all about to do some research and figure out, who has done what, where, and when to address your particular issue. talk about legislative intent, how you formulate the message of the history, and what you're saying with that history. How do you organize the information, the lack of information? Do you do it chronically, chronologically, or some other evidence trend? To illustrate your problem, you definitely should use subsections and headings to clarify the material

Write the Legislative History Document

To write your legislative history, begin by using the Method to plan the document. Legislative history writing is interpretive. Even if the report is only a list of significant prior legislation, the list itself represents a selection or interpretation. Think of legislative history as a report of government records research to support a message. The message is your conclusion formed after consulting the record. You need to learn about the legislative process, government record types, and standard or new tools for researching government records. The goal, scope, strategy, protection, and communication objective.

### Answers

To compile a background** **and** legislative history** on the problem of the scarcity of cheap housing in the **public sector **in the USA, you will need to gather information** **from various sources.

Begin by identifying the Public Law (P.L.) number, bill number, and date of introduction in Congress. The following sources can help you trace a P.L. and provide valuable** background information**: Introduction, Compiling a Legislative History Bill Files (2 cases), House and Senate Journals (2 cases), Committee Hearing and Floor (2 cases), Debate Recordings (2 cases), and Other **Official** **Documents**. Researching Legislative Intent is important, and you should include at least two cases from each source.

When conducting legislative history research, there are four main types of documents to consider: Bills, Floor, Reports, and Debates. Your background and legislative history should explain the current status of the problem, identify relevant laws and **legislation **(including unsuccessful initiatives), and evaluate past efforts to address the issue. Use at least 6 primary sources and assess their credibility. Proper in-text citations are necessary.

To write your legislative history document, use the Method to plan it. Remember that legislative history writing is interpretive, even if it's just a list of significant prior legislation. Think of it as a report of government records research supporting a message. Learn about the legislative process, government record types, and research tools. Your goal is to communicate your conclusion formed after consulting the record, and subsections and headings can be used to organize the information.

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Dawgpound Incorporated has a bond trading on the secondary market that will mature in four years. The bond pays an annual coupon with a coupon rate of 4.25% and has a face value of $1,000.00. Based on the economy and risk associated with Dawgpound, you seek a 12.25% return on Dawgpound debt. What price are you willing to pay for the bond?

Trek Star Productions has bonds trading in the secondary market that mature in 15.00 years. Each bond pays an annual coupon of $95.25 with a face value of $1,000.00. Investors in Trek Star debt currently seek an 11.00% return.

What is the coupon rate associated with Trek Star bonds?

### Answers

The annual coupon payment on the bond can be calculated by multiplying the coupon rate by the face value of the bond. The **coupon rate** associated with Trek Star bonds is 6.00%.

Here, the coupon rate is 4.25% and the **face value** is $1,000.00.

Coupon Payment = Coupon Rate × Face Value= 4.25% × $1,000.00

= $42.50

To determine the price of the bond that would yield a 12.25% return, we need to use the present value formula for a bond, which is:

PVB = PMT × [1 - 1 / (1 + r)n] / r + FV / (1 + r)n

wherePVB = Present Value of the Bond

PMT = Annual Coupon Payment

r = Required Rate of Return

n = Number of Years to Maturity

FV = Face Value

We can substitute the given values into the formula:

PVB = $42.50 × [1 - 1 / (1 + 0.1225)4] / 0.1225 + $1,000.00 / (1 + 0.1225)4PVB

= $942.30

Therefore, you are willing to pay $942.30 for the bond of Dawgpound Incorporated.

Trek Star Productions

To determine the coupon rate of the Trek Star bonds, we need to use the present value formula for a bond and solve for the coupon rate.

PVB = PMT × [1 - 1 / (1 + r)n] / r + FV / (1 + r)n

where

PVB = Present Value of the Bond

PMT = Annual Coupon Payment

r = Required **Rate of Return**

n = Number of Years to Maturity

FV = Face Value

We can substitute the given values into the formula and solve for the coupon rate:

$1,000.00 = $95.25 × [1 - 1 / (1 + 0.11)15] / 0.11 + $1,000.00 / (1 + 0.11)15$1,000.00 - $669.40

= $95.25 × [1 - 1 / (1 + r)15] / r(1 + r)15

= 1 / [1 - ($330.60 / $95.25) × r](1 + r)15

= 1 / 0.6513 + 0.6867 × r1.3376 × (1 + r)15

= 1r

= (1 / 1.3376)1 / 15 - 1r

= 0.06 or 6.00%

Therefore, the coupon rate associated with Trek Star bonds is 6.00%.

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The Quick ratio is a more restrictive measure than the current ratio, when evaluating activity

### Answers

The quick ratio is a more **restrictive **measure than the current ratio when evaluating activity. Both ratios are used to assess a company's liquidity, but the quick ratio focuses on a more conservative approach.

To calculate the quick ratio, you need to consider only the most liquid assets of a **company**, such as cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities, divided by its current liabilities. This ratio excludes inventory and prepaid expenses, which can be less easily converted into cash.

On the other hand, the current ratio includes all **current **assets, including inventory and prepaid expenses, divided by current liabilities. This provides a broader measure of a company's ability to meet short-term obligations.

The quick ratio is considered more restrictive because it excludes assets that may not be easily converted to cash in the short term. This gives a clearer picture of a company's ability to cover its immediate **liabilities**. However, it may also result in a lower ratio compared to the current ratio.

In conclusion, the quick ratio is a more conservative measure of liquidity as it **focuses **only on the most liquid assets. It provides a stricter evaluation of a company's activity than the current ratio.

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You run a construction firm. You have just won a contract to build a government office complex. Building it will require an investment of $10.0 million today and S5.0 million in one year. The government will pay you $20.0 million in one year upon the building's completion. Suppose the interest rate is 10.0%. What is the NPV of this opportunity? follow can your firm turn this NPV into cash today? What is the NPV of this opportunity? The NPV of the proposal is $|f] million. (Round to two decimal places.) follow can your firm turn this NPV into cash today? (Select the best choice below.) The firm can borrow $15.0 million today and pay it back with 10.0% interest using the $18.18 government. The firm can borrow $18.18 million today and pay it back with 10.0% interest using the $20.0 government. The firm can borrow $15.0 million today and pay it back with 10.0% interest using the $20.0 million it will receive from the government. The firm can borrow $22.73 million today and pay it back with 10.0% interest using the $20.0 million it will receive from the government. Marian Plunket owns her own business and is considering an investment. If she undertakes the investment, it will pay $4, 000 at the end of each of the next 3 years. The opportunity requires an initial investment of $1, 000 plus an additional investment at the end of the secand year of $5, 000. What is the NPV of this opportunity if the interest rate is 2.0% per year? Should Marian take it? What is the NPV of this opportunity if the interest rate is 2.0% per year? The NPV of this opportunity is . (Round to the nearest cent.) Should Marian take it? Marian take this opportunity. (Select from the drop-down menu.) MAt thew wants to take out a loan to buy a car. lie calculates that he can make repayments of $4, 000 per year. If he can get a five-year loan with an interest rate of 7.1%, what is the maximum price he can pay for the car?

### Answers

The maximum **price **Matthew can pay for the car is $16,445.57.

To calculate the net present value (NPV) of the government office complex opportunity, we need to discount the future cash flows to their present values.

Step 1: Calculate the present value (PV) of the $20.0 million payment one year from now using the** interest rate** of 10.0%. PV = $20.0 million / (1 + 0.10)¹ = $18.18 million.

Step 2: Calculate the total present value (TPV) of the investment by summing the PVs of the initial investment and the second-year investment. TPV = -$10.0 million - $5.0 million = -$15.0 million.

Step 3: Calculate the NPV by subtracting the TPV from the PV of the payment. NPV = $18.18 million - (-$15.0 million) = $33.18 million.

The NPV of this opportunity is $33.18 million.

To turn this NPV into cash today, the firm can borrow $15.0 million today and pay it back with 10.0% interest using the $20.0 million it will receive from the **government**.

For Marian's investment opportunity, let's calculate the NPV.

Step 1: Calculate the present value (PV) of the $4,000 payments at the end of each year using the interest rate of 2.0%. PV = $4,000 / (1 + 0.02)¹ + $4,000 / (1 + 0.02)² + $4,000 / (1 + 0.02)³ = $11,624.39.

Step 2: Calculate the present value (PV) of the additional investment of $5,000 at the end of the second year. PV = $5,000 / (1 + 0.02)² = $4,853.86.

Step 3: Calculate the total present value (TPV) of the investment by summing the PVs of the initial investment and the additional investment. TPV = -$1,000 - $4,853.86 = -$5,853.86.

Step 4: Calculate the NPV by subtracting the TPV from the PV of the payments. NPV = $11,624.39 - (-$5,853.86) = $17,478.25.

The NPV of this opportunity is $17,478.25.

Since the NPV is positive, Marian should take this opportunity.

To calculate the maximum price Matthew can pay for the car, we need to find the present value of his loan repayments.

Step 1: Calculate the present value (PV) of the $4,000 repayments over 5 years using the interest rate of 7.1%. PV = $4,000 / (1 + 0.071)¹ + $4,000 / (1 + 0.071)² + $4,000 / (1 + 0.071)³ + $4,000 / (1 + 0.071)⁴ + $4,000 / (1 + 0.071)⁵ = $16,445.57.

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Once a doubtful debt becomes uncollectible:

Nothing happens

The amount is written off

### Answers

The **amount **is written off. When a doubtful **debt **becomes uncollectible, it is necessary for the company to remove it from its accounts.

This process is known as writing off the **debt**. By writing off the debt, the company recognizes it as a loss and removes it from the accounts receivable. This **adjustment **is made to reflect the accurate financial position of the company and to account for the **loss **incurred from the uncollectible debt. Writing off the debt allows the company to accurately assess its **financial statements **and make informed decisions regarding its outstanding receivables.

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You are the marketing manager of a midsize firm that sells parts to heating and air conditioning professionals for use in their work, and you have decided to survey your customers’ feelings about your firm. List and discuss three possible sources of error that may occur when you conduct your survey.

### Answers

Non-response bias, sampling bias, and response **bias **are three potential sources of error that may occur when conducting a survey to assess customers' feelings about your firm. It is crucial to address these sources of error to obtain accurate and reliable survey results.

Three possible sources of error that may occur when conducting a survey to assess customers' feelings about your firm are non-response bias, sampling bias, and response bias.

1. **Non-response bias**: This occurs when a significant portion of the targeted population does not respond to the survey. It can lead to biased results if non-respondents have different opinions or experiences compared to respondents. To mitigate this bias, you can follow up with non-respondents to encourage participation, ensure the survey is easy to complete, and offer incentives for completing the survey.

2. Sampling bias: This happens when the sample of respondents is not representative of the entire target population. It can occur if the sample is not randomly selected or if certain groups are underrepresented. To minimize sampling bias, ensure that the sample is selected randomly from the entire population and is representative in terms of demographics, geographic location, and customer segment.

3. Response bias: This bias occurs when respondents provide inaccurate or misleading information due to various reasons, such as social desirability bias or misunderstanding the survey questions. To reduce response bias, ensure that survey questions are clear, concise, and unbiased. It's also important to maintain respondent anonymity and reassure them that their honest opinions are valued.

In conclusion, non-response bias, sampling bias, and response bias are three potential sources of error that may occur when conducting a survey to assess customers' feelings about your firm. It is crucial to address these sources of error to obtain accurate and reliable survey results.

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product strategy for a chocolate brand that meets the needs and expectations of eco friendly consumers

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Remember, an effective **product **strategy for an eco-friendly chocolate brand requires ongoing commitment and continuous improvement. Regularly review and adapt your **strategy **to meet the evolving needs of eco-friendly consumers.

1. Research and understand eco-friendly consumer **product **: Start by identifying the specific needs and expectations of eco-friendly consumers. Look into their preferences for sustainable packaging, ethically sourced ingredients, fair trade practices, and environmentally friendly production processes.

2. Develop sustainable sourcing practices: Seek out suppliers who offer **organic**, fair trade, and sustainably sourced cocoa beans. This helps ensure that the ingredients used in your chocolate are ethically produced and environmentally friendly.

3. Use eco-friendly packaging: Opt for **packaging **materials that are recyclable, biodegradable, or made from sustainable resources. Reduce excessive packaging and use minimalistic designs to minimize waste.

4. Communicate your eco-friendly practices: Clearly communicate your brand's commitment to sustainability through marketing materials, product labels, and social media. Highlight your eco-friendly initiatives, such as carbon-neutral production or partnerships with environmental organizations.

5. Collaborate with eco-friendly organizations: **Consider **partnering with non-profit organizations or initiatives that focus on environmental sustainability. This can help enhance your brand's credibility and attract eco-conscious consumers.

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albot Industries is considering launching a new product. The new nanufacturing equipment will cost $11 million, and production and sales wil equire an initial $1 million investment in net operating working capital. The ompany's tax rate is 25%. Enter your answers as positive values. Enter you answers in millions. For example, an answer of $10,550,000 should be entered as 10.55 . Round your answers to two decimal places. a. What is the initial investment outlay? b. The company spent and expensed $150,000 on research related to the new product last year. What is the initial investment outlay? $ million c. Rather than build a new manufacturing facility, the company plans to install the equipment in a building it owns but is not now using. The building could be sold for $1.3 million after taxes and real estate commissions. What is the initial investment outlay? $ million

### Answers

a. The initial **investment **outlay for Albot Industries' new product launch is $12 million. b. Considering the $150,000 **expense **on research related to the new product last year, the revised initial investment outlay is $12.15 million. c. Taking into account the potential sale of the unused building for $1.3 million after taxes and real estate commissions, the final initial investment outlay is $10.85 million.

a. The initial **investment **outlay includes the cost of manufacturing **equipment** ($11 million) and the net operating working capital investment ($1 million). Therefore, the initial investment outlay is $11 million + $1 million = $12 million.

b. The $150,000 expense on **research** related to the new **product **is not included in the initial investment outlay because it was incurred in the previous year. Thus, the initial investment outlay remains at $12 million.

c. If the company plans to utilize an existing building instead of constructing a new manufacturing facility, the potential sale of the building should be considered. The building's selling price after taxes and real estate commissions is $1.3 million. Since this amount represents an inflow of cash, it reduces the initial investment outlay. Therefore, the initial investment outlay is reduced by $1.3 million, resulting in a revised amount of $12 million - $1.3 million = $10.85 million. By considering all the relevant factors, including the manufacturing equipment cost, net operating working capital investment, research expense, and potential building sale, we arrive at the final initial investment outlay of $10.85 million.

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Research Project 3 From the text, the Weighted Average Cost of Capital is: WACC = (E/V) x RE + (D/V) x RD x (1- TC) (Eq. 14-6) In this Research Project, the WACC for a selected company will be determined. Fill in the table to identify your selected company: Name of Company/Stock Johnson & Johnson Ticker Symbol JNJ Part 1: Cost of Debt Complete the following table to arrive at the Cost of Debt and Tax Rate. Interest Income (Expense) – last 2 years avg 318,000 Earnings Before Tax – last 3 years total 20.387 Taxation – last 3 years total 1.898 Corporate Tax Rate, TC 9.9% Current Debt 32.60 LT Debt & Leases 1.833 Total Debt 34.433 Cost of Debt 9.235 Part 2: Cost of Equity and CAPM Components Complete the table and determine the cost of equity. Show your calculations. Beta, βE Historical Market Return, iM Assume 9% Risk Free Rate, if Assume 2% Cost of Equity, iE Part 3: Weighted Average Cost of Capital Draw on your work in Parts 1 and 2 to determine D/V and E/V. Total Debt Value Total Equity Value Total Firm Value Total Debt to Total Firm Value (D/V) Total Equity to Total Firm Value (E/V) Show your calculation of your selected company’s WACC. Suppose the company you selected embarked on a recapitalization that relied upon a 50% D/V and a 50% E/V. Assuming that the component costs stayed the same, calculate the company’s WACC under this scenario. Show your calculation. Would it make sense for the company to make this change? Part 4: Sustainable Growth Recall from Module 1, that a firm can achieve its Sustainable Growth Rate by using internal equity financing and a constant debt ratio. Sustainable growth rate = (ROE ∙ b) / [1-(ROE ∙ b)] (Eq. 4-3) As defined in the text, b is the retention or plowback ratio. For your selected company, use Mergent’s data to calculate the Sustainable Growth Rate for the most recent period. Show your calculations. How would you interpret the result for the company you selected? Does this seem reasonable to you? Respond: if your selected company chooses to grow at its Sustainable Growth Rate, with increases in both retained earnings and debt, how will this influence its WACC?

### Answers

Name of Company/Stock: **Johnson **& Johnson

Ticker **Symbol**: JNJ

Part 1: Cost of Debt

To calculate the cost of debt, we need to determine the tax rate and the average interest expense.

Interest **Income **(Expense) – last 2 years avg: $318,000

Earnings Before Tax – last 3 years total: $20.387 million

Taxation – last 3 years total: $1.898 million

Corporate Tax Rate, TC: 9.9%

Current Debt: $32.60 million

LT Debt & Leases: $1.833 million

Total Debt: $34.433 million

Cost of Debt = Interest Expense / Total Debt

Interest Expense = (Earnings Before Tax - Taxation) * (1 - TC)

Interest Expense = ($20.387 million - $1.898 million) * (1 - 0.099)

Interest Expense = $18.489 million * 0.901

Interest Expense = $16.673 million

Cost of Debt = $16.673 million / $34.433 million

Cost of Debt = 0.4838 or 48.38%

Part 2: Cost of Equity and CAPM **Components**

To determine the cost of equity, we need to know the beta (βE), historical market return (iM), and risk-free rate (if).

Beta, βE: Assume 1.0

Historical Market Return, iM: Assume 9%

Risk-Free Rate, if: Assume 2%

Cost of Equity, iE = Risk-Free Rate + (Beta * (Historical Market Return - Risk-Free Rate))

Cost of Equity, iE = 2% + (1.0 * (9% - 2%))

Cost of Equity, iE = 2% + 7%

Cost of Equity, iE = 9%

Part 3: Weighted Average Cost of Capital

To calculate the weighted average cost of capital (WACC), we need to determine D/V and E/V (debt-to-value and equity-to-value ratios).

Total Debt Value = Total Debt = $34.433 million

Total Equity Value = Total Firm Value - Total Debt Value

Assuming Total Firm Value is the sum of Total Debt and Total Equity, we need to find Total Firm Value.

Total Firm Value = Total Debt + Total Equity Value

Total Firm Value = $34.433 million + Total Equity Value

To calculate D/V and E/V:

D/V = Total Debt Value / Total Firm Value

E/V = Total Equity Value / Total Firm Value

Now, we can calculate D/V and E/V:

D/V = $34.433 million / ($34.433 million + Total Equity Value)

E/V = Total Equity Value / ($34.433 million + Total Equity Value)

Suppose the company embarked on a **recapitalization **with 50% D/V and 50% E/V.

Growth Rate (SGR), we need to know the return on equity (ROE) and the retention ratio (b).

Sustainable Growth Rate = (ROE * b) / [1 - (ROE * b)]

Unfortunately, the data for ROE and the retention ratio (b) is not provided. Please provide the necessary information to calculate the SGR for the selected company.

Without the necessary information, it is not possible to determine the influence of the Sustainable Growth Rate on the

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Human resource (answer as you are part of the company for example create a communication plan)

What is your communication plan? How are you going to communicate with each other? What is an acceptable time frame within which to reply?

### Answers

Our communication plan involves utilizing a combination of email, instant messaging, and weekly **team meetings** to ensure timely and effective communication within the company.

Our communication plan focuses on leveraging various communication channels to facilitate efficient and effective information exchange within our organization. An **email **will serve as the primary means of formal communication for important announcements, project updates, and document sharing. Instant messaging platforms, such as Slack or Microsoft Teams, will be utilized for quick and informal conversations, enabling real-time collaboration and resolving minor queries promptly. Additionally, weekly team meetings will be conducted either in-person or virtually, depending on the **circumstances**, to encourage face-to-face interaction, provide updates on ongoing projects, and address any concerns or challenges. To maintain a responsive culture, we aim for an acceptable time frame of within 24 hours for email responses and immediate or timely replies for instant messages, ensuring open and consistent communication throughout the company.

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Donut You Know makes custom donuts for holidays throughout the year for fun and to help with marketing. The owners want to make a special batch of heart shaped donuts for Valentine's Day and need to determine how many to make. They sell the specialty donuts for $3.95 each. However, the next day they are discounted to $0.50 each. Custom donuts cost $3.25 each to make (labor and materials). Donuts not sold on the holiday they are made for have to be packaged to be sold the next day. This incurs an additional $0.10 of cost per donut. Donut You Know has estimated demand as follows: a) What is the target service level? Enter your response as a percentage rounded to one decimal place (xx.x\%). b) How many donuts should Donut You Know make? Round to nearest whole number.

### Answers

a) The target **service** level is 0.933 or 93.3%.

b) The number of donuts that Donut You Know should make is 160.

a) Target service level Donut You Know's target service level can be determined using the following formula: Target service level = 1 − Probability of stockout The probability of a stockout can be calculated as the ratio of the lost sales to the demand. Since the demand is not known with certainty, we have to use a **normal distribution** to model the demand.

Thus, the probability of a stockout can be calculated as the area under the normal distribution curve to the right of the mean minus the number of **standard deviations**. Target service level = 1 − Probability of stockoutThe probability of a stockout can be calculated as the ratio of the lost sales to the demand.

Since the demand is not known with certainty, we have to use a normal distribution to model the demand. To find the value of Z, we need to find the probability of a stockout. For that, we need to know the demand and the expected number of donuts produced.

**Demand** (μ) = 150 (from the table)Standard deviation (σ) = 35 (from the table)Expected number of donuts produced = 160 (based on the number of donuts produced last year)

Probability of a stockout = Lost sales/DemandLost sales = Demand − Expected number of donuts produced= 150 − 160= −10 Probability of a stockout = 10/150= 0.067Z = inv

Norm(1 - Probability of stockout)= invNorm(1 - 0.067)= invNorm(0.933) = 1.44 Therefore, the target service level is:Target service level = 1 − Probability of stockout= 1 − 0.067= 0.933 or 93.3% (rounded to one decimal place)

b) How many donuts should Donut You Know make?To calculate the number of donuts that Donut You Know should make, we need to consider the following three scenarios:

Best case: 160 donuts are produced and sold.Worst case: 130 donuts are produced and sold.30 donuts are packaged for sale the next day.Cost = (160 × $3.25) + (30 × $3.35)= $547.50 + $100.50= $648.00** **

**Revenue** from sales = (160 × $3.95) + (30 × $0.50)= $687.50 + $15.00= $702.50 Profit = Revenue − Cost= $702.50 − $648.00= $54.50 Therefore, the number of donuts that Donut You Know should make is 160.

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The Nelson Company has $1,417,500 in current assets and $525,000 in current liabilities. Its initial inventory level is $367,500, and it will raise funds as additional notes payable and use them to increase inventory.

How much can Nelson's short-term debt (notes payable) increase without pushing its current ratio below 1.9? Round your answer to the nearest cent.

What will be the firm's quick ratio after Nelson has raised the maximum amount of short-term funds? Round your answer to two decimal places.

### Answers

Therefore, the firm's quick ratio after Nelson has raised the maximum amount of short-term **funds** would be 2.00.

To find out how much Nelson's short-term debt (notes payable) can increase without pushing its current ratio below 1.9, we need to calculate the current ratio first.

The current ratio is calculated by dividing current assets by current **liabilities**.

Current ratio = Current assets / Current liabilities

Current ratio = $1,417,500 / $525,000

Current ratio = 2.7 (rounded to one decimal place)

Since the current ratio needs to be maintained at or above 1.9, we can subtract the desired current ratio from 1 to find the maximum increase in short-term debt without pushing the current ratio below 1.9.

Maximum increase in short-term debt = Current ratio - **Desired** current ratio

Maximum increase in short-term debt = 2.7 - 1.9

Maximum increase in short-term debt = 0.8

Now, we can calculate the maximum amount of short-term debt (notes payable) that Nelson can raise. We multiply the maximum increase in short-term debt by the current liabilities.

Maximum amount of short-term debt = Maximum increase in short-term debt * Current liabilities

Maximum amount of short-term debt = 0.8 * $525,000

Maximum amount of short-term debt = $420,000

Therefore, Nelson can increase its short-term debt by up to $420,000 without pushing its current ratio below 1.9.

To find the firm's quick ratio after Nelson has raised the maximum amount of short-term funds, we need to calculate the quick ratio. The quick ratio is calculated by excluding **inventory** from current assets and dividing it by current liabilities.

Quick ratio = (Current assets - Inventory) / Current liabilities

Quick ratio = ($1,417,500 - $367,500) / $525,000

Quick ratio = $1,050,000 / $525,000

Quick ratio = 2 (rounded to one decimal place)

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What principal will earn $559 simple interest at 6.80% p.a. from February 4,2021 to July 17. 2021?

### Answers

To earn $559 in simple **interest** at a rate of 6.80% per annum from February 4, 2021, to July 17, 2021, the **principal** amount would be $8,300.

We may use the basic** interest** formula to determine the principle amount:

[tex]Simple Interest = (Principal * Rate * Time) / 100[/tex]

Given that the time period is from February 4, 2021, to July 17, 2021, we can determine the number of days between these two dates. From February 4 to July 17, there are 163 days.

Next, we need to calculate the interest earned during this **period** using the given rate of 6.80%. Substituting the values into the formula:

$559 = (Principal * 6.80 * 163) / 100

Simplifying the **equation**, we can solve for the principal:

Principal = ($559 * 100) / (6.80 * 163)

Principal ≈ $8,300

Therefore, a principal **amount** of approximately $8,300 would earn $559 in simple interest at a rate of 6.80% per annum from February 4, 2021, to July 17, 2021.

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I want you to think and discuss at least one expectation about the future gain that you have from your current education Given that expectation, what current commitment (of resources or something) are you making? Finally, what risks do you have in achieving your future expectation?

### Answers

**Education** should provide with opportunities for career growth and higher earning potential in the future. This expectation motivates to invest time, effort, and **resources** into acquiring knowledge and skills.

By pursuing current education, one is committing resources, including time, energy, and finances, to acquire knowledge, skills, and qualifications that are relevant to desired career path. This commitment involves attending classes, studying, completing assignments, and actively engaging in **learning opportunities**. One may also be investing financially in tuition fees, books, and other educational resources.

However, there are risks associated with achieving future expectations. These risks may include the possibility of not finding desired employment opportunities despite having an education, changes in the **job market **or industry trends that may render certain skills or qualifications less valuable, or encountering unexpected challenges or obstacles along the way. Additionally, there is always the risk of personal circumstances or **external factors **that may impact my ability to fully utilize education and attain the desired future gains.

Overall, the current commitment to education is driven by the expectation of future **career growth** and higher earning potential. While there are risks involved, one should believe that education will equip me with the necessary tools and knowledge to navigate these challenges and increase chances of achieving my desired future outcomes.

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Asset utilization ratios describe how capital is being utilized to buy assets.

### Answers

**Asset utilization ratios** provide valuable insights into how effectively a company uses its assets to generate income. They serve as essential tools for stakeholders in evaluating operational efficiency, creditworthiness, investment potential, and overall financial performance.

Asset utilization ratios, such as r**eturn on assets** (ROA) and total asset turnover, are key indicators of how efficiently a company utilizes its assets to generate revenue. These ratios play a crucial role in evaluating a company's financial performance and are utilized by stakeholders to assess its operational efficiency.

The return on assets ratio compares a company's net income to its average total assets, indicating the profitability achieved relative to the size of the asset base. A higher ROA suggests effective asset utilization, with the company generating greater income from its assets.

The total asset turnover ratio measures how well a company employs its assets to generate sales revenue. It is calculated by dividing net sales by average total assets, reflecting the efficiency of asset usage in generating revenue. A higher total asset turnover ratio signifies better asset utilization and more effective sales generation.

These ratios hold different significance for **stakeholders**. Creditors focus on the return on assets ratio to assess the company's ability to generate profits and repay debts. **Investors**, on the other hand, emphasize the total asset turnover ratio to evaluate how efficiently assets are employed to generate sales revenue and potentially increase shareholder value.

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Bill and Sally Kaplan have an annual spending plan that amounts to $40,000. If inflation is 4 percent a year for the next three years, what amount will the Kaplans need for their living expenses three years from now? (Exhibit 1-A, Exhibit 1-B, Exhibit 1-C, Note: Use appropriate factor(s) from the tables provided. Round time value factor to 3 decimal places and final answer to 2 decimal places.

### Answers

The Kaplans will need approximately $44,960 for their living expenses three years from now, considering a 4% annual** inflation rate**.

To calculate the amount the Kaplans will need for their **living expenses** three years from now, taking into account the 4% annual inflation rate, we can use the concept of future value and the appropriate time value factor. Let's refer to the provided tables to find the required factor.

Based on the information provided, we need to calculate the** future value** of $40,000 after three years of 4% annual inflation.

Using the tables provided, let's find the appropriate factor:

Exhibit 1-A: Future Value of $1 at 4% for 3 years = 1.124

Now, we can calculate the future value of $40,000 after three years:

Future Value = **Present Value** × Future Value Factor

Future Value = $40,000 × 1.124

Calculating the future value:

Future Value = $44,960

Therefore, the Kaplans will need approximately $44,960 for their living expenses** three years** from now, considering a 4% annual inflation rate.

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You are given the following information: Expected return on stock A 12% Expected return on stock B 20% Standard deviation of returns: Stock A 1.0 Stock B 6.0 Correlation coefficient of the returns on stocks A and B +0.2 a) What are the expected returns and standard deviations of a portfolio consisting of: 1. 100 percent in stock A? 2. 100 percent in stock B? 3. 50 percent in each stock? 4. 25 percent in stock A and 75 percent in stock B? 5. 75 percent in stock A and 25 percent in stock B? b) Compare the aforementioned returns and the risk associated with each portfolio. c) Redo the calculations assuming that the correlation coefficient of the returns on the two stocks is -0.6. What is the impact of this difference in the correlation coefficient?

### Answers

The expected returns and standard deviations of the **portfolios**, assuming a correlation coefficient of +0.2, are as follows:

1. Portfolio consisting of 100% in stock A:

- Expected return: 12%

- Standard deviation: 1.0

2. Portfolio consisting of 100% in stock B:

- Expected return: 20%

- Standard deviation: 6.0

3. Portfolio consisting of 50% in stock A and 50% in stock B:

- Expected return: 16%

- Standard deviation: 3.5

4. Portfolio consisting of 25% in stock A and 75% in stock B:

- Expected return: 18%

- Standard deviation: 4.5

5. Portfolio consisting of 75% in stock A and 25% in stock B:

- Expected return: 14%

- Standard deviation: 2.5

When comparing the aforementioned returns and risks associated with each portfolio, it is evident that the expected returns increase as the **proportion** of stock B in the portfolio increases. However, the trade-off is that the standard deviation, which measures the risk or **volatility**, also increases with a higher allocation to stock B. Therefore, portfolios with higher allocations to stock B have higher expected returns but also higher risks.

Considering the impact of a different correlation coefficient of -0.6, the expected returns and standard deviations of the portfolios will change. A negative correlation indicates that the returns of stocks A and B move in opposite directions. This **diversification **effect can reduce the overall risk of the portfolio. The expected returns of the portfolios will likely be lower than in the positive correlation scenario, while the standard deviations will also be lower. The specific values can be obtained by recalculating the portfolio returns and standard deviations using the updated correlation coefficient.

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al Prepare in general journal form the entry to record the original issuance of the convertible debentures.

b. Prepare in general journal form the entry to record the exercise of the conversion option, using the book value method. Show supporting computations in good form.

E16.5 (LO 1) (Conversion of Bonds) The December 31, 2020, balance sheet of Kepler Corp. is as follows.

10% callable, convertible bonds payable (semiannual interest

dates April 30 and October 31; convertible into 6 shares of $25

par value common stock per $1,000 of bond principal; maturity

date April 30, 2026). $500,000

Discount on bonds payable 10,240

$489,760

On March 5, 2021, Kepler Corp. called all of the bonds as of April 30 for the principal plus interest through April 30. By April 30, all bondholders had exercised their conversion to common stock as of the interest payment date. Consequently, on April 30, Kepler Corp. paid the semiannual interest and issued shares of common stock for the bonds. The discount is amortized on a straight-line basis. Kepler uses the book value method.

### Answers

Original issuance of the **convertible debentures**:

Debit Cash, Debit Discount on Bonds Payable, Credit **Convertible **Bonds Payable.

Exercise of the conversion option using the **book value method**:

Debit Convertible Bonds Payable, Debit Discount on Bonds Payable, Credit Common Stock, Credit Additional Paid-in **Capital**.

When the convertible debentures are initially issued, the company receives cash, which is **debited**. The discount on bonds payable is also debited, representing the difference between the bond's face value and the amount received. This **discount **will be amortized over the bond's life. The convertible bonds payable account is credited, representing the liability created by the issuance of the **debentures**.

When the conversion option is exercised, the company debits the convertible bonds payable, reducing the liability on the balance sheet. The discount on **bonds **payable is also debited to remove the remaining unamortized discount associated with the converted bonds. Common stock is credited, representing the **shares **issued as a result of the conversion. Any excess of the bond's book value over the par value per share is credited to additional paid-in capital. This recognizes the value attributed to the conversion **feature **of the bonds.

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Assume that you face two medical outcomes in the coming year:

Outcome Probability Cost

Stay healthy 0.90 $0

Get sick 0.10 $20,000

a. What is your expected healthcare cost?

b. Assume that an insurance company is willing to sell you a healthcare policy that covers all of your healthcare costs for the coming year for $2,200, would you purchase the policy? Please explain why or why not.

c. Now assume that, given your lifestyle choices , your probability of getting sick is 50%, what is your expected healthcare cost?

d. See part c above. Should the insurance company (see part b) sell you a healthcare policy that covers all of your healthcare cost for the coming year for $2,200? Please explain.

What is the difference between free-for-service reimbursement and capitation?

Compare and contrast the concepts of adverse selection and moral hazard and how they impact the cost of healthcare and the cost of health insurance.

### Answers

a.The expected healthcare cost is **$2,000**.

b. Yes, we will purchase the policy because it costs us **less**.

c. The expected healthcare cost is **$10,000**.

a. To find the expected healthcare cost we need to multiply the probability of getting sick by the cost of getting sick and adding it to the product of the probability of staying healthy by the cost of staying healthy. Expected Healthcare Cost = (Probability of Getting Sick x Cost of Getting Sick) + (Probability of Staying Healthy x Cost of Staying Healthy). Expected Healthcare Cost = **(0.10 x $20,000)** + **(0.90 x $0)** = $2,000.

b. Since the expected healthcare cost is $2,000 and the cost of the healthcare policy that **covers** all of the healthcare costs is $2,200. Thus, we will purchase the policy because it costs us less than what we expected to **pay** if we did not buy the policy.

c. If the probability of getting sick is 50%, then the **probability** of staying healthy is 50%. The expected healthcare cost now becomes: Expected **Healthcare** Cost = (Probability of Getting Sick x Cost of Getting Sick) + (Probability of Staying Healthy x Cost of Staying Healthy). Expected Healthcare Cost = (0.50 x $20,000) + (0.50 x $0) = $10,000.

d. No, the insurance company should not sell us the healthcare policy that covers all of our healthcare costs for the coming year for** $2,200**.

Since the expected healthcare cost is $10,000 and the cost of the healthcare **policy** that covers all of the healthcare costs is $2,200, we are paying more than what we are expected to pay. So, the insurance company should not sell us the healthcare policy that covers all of our healthcare costs for the coming year for $2,200. Free-for-service reimbursement and capitation Free-for-service **reimbursement** refers to a payment model where healthcare providers are paid for each service they provide to the patient.

On the other hand, capitation is a payment model where healthcare providers are paid a fixed amount per patient for a specific period of time. Adverse selection and moral hazard Adverse selection refers to a situation where people with higher risks are more likely to **purchase** health insurance. On the other hand, moral hazard refers to a situation where people are more likely to take risks or consume more healthcare services because they are insured. Both of these concepts can impact the cost of healthcare and health insurance by increasing the overall cost due to increased healthcare utilization and a higher **proportion** of high-risk individuals.

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Kevin and Zaria are saving for their daughter Cadence's college education. Cadence just turned 10 (at t=0 ), and she will be entering college 8 years from now (at t=8 ). College tuition and expenses at State U. are currently $16,000 a year, but they are expected to increase at a rate of 3−5% a year. Cadence should graduate in 4 years-if she takes longer or wants to go to graduate school, she will be on her own. Tuition and other costs will be due at the beginning of each school year ( at t=8,9,10, and 11). So far, Kevin and Zaria have accumulated $16,000 in their college savings account (at t=0 ). Their long-run financial plan is to add an additional $4,000 in each of the next 4 years (at t=1,2,3, and 4). Then they plan to make 3 equal annual contributions in each of the following years, t=5.6, and 7 . They expect their investment account to eara 8%. How large must the annual payments at t=5.6, and 7 be to cover Cadence's anticipated college costs? a. 57.705.88 b. 58,941.14 c. 57,135.08 d. 58.278.84 e 56.371.65

### Answers

The **annual payments **must be valued 57,705.88 to cover Cadence's anticipated college costs.(A)

The calculations required to determine the size of the annual payments at t = 5.6 and 7 are shown below. To determine the required future payments, the present value of the** future expenses **must first be calculated.

The future expenses were calculated to be $79,383.09 in year 8 when Cadence enters college, and they will increase at a rate of 3-5% per year. When a** geometric gradient i**s present, a geometric gradient formula must be used, which is different from an arithmetic gradient formula.

After converting the geometric gradient to an equivalent uniform gradient, a uniform gradient formula is used to calculate the required annual payments. (A)

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